The specific objectives of this Chair are to:
- carry out collaborative research with partners in the field of comparative education (trends and issues related to quality and equity in education, including private tutoring);
- provide policy analysis and advice to assist policy-makers and practitioners;
- design, produce and disseminate studies, policy briefs and other resources in the field of comparative education; and,
- provide training at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, to students, teachers, administrators and related personnel.
Please visit the UNESCO website for more details.
The work of the Chair links closely to the mandate of the Comparative Education Research Centre in the HKU Faculty of Education.
If you want to know more about the work of UNESCO, please click on the following websites:
30th Anniversary of the UNESCO Chairs Programme
On November 3 to 4, 2022, UNESCO convened a conference in Paris to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme. The event was attended in person by over 500 Chairs from around the world, with others joining online.
Among the opening speakers was Federico Mayor, who had launched the programme in 1992 during his tenure as UNESCO Director-General (1987-99). Introduced by Stefania Gianini, the current Assistant Director-General for Education, Mayor recalled the vision at that time. Participants lauded the vision, which they felt had indeed been largely accomplished and was ongoing.
Another highlight was the keynote address by Achille Mbembe from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. It was entitled “The Transformation of the Knowledge Commons: Perspectives from the Global South” and, together with other plenary sessions, is available here.
The overall conference theme was “Transforming Knowledge for Just and Sustainable Futures”. The occasion attracted Chairs from all sectors, thus including not only education but also science and culture. The event added significant momentum to revisioning of the UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs programme, promoting intellectual leadership and cross-disciplinarity. Break-out groups included an interactive session for Chairs in the Asian region.
The HKU Chair contributed a one-minute video to contribute to the global presentation played on a continuous basis in the UNESCO Headquarters throughout the two days.
Books now available in Arabic
A major focus for the UNESCO Chair is on shadow education around the world. Two recent books (scroll down for more information) have focused on:
- Shadow Education in Africa, published by the HKU Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) in English, French, and Portuguese, and
- Shadow Education in the Middle East, published by Routledge in English.
All these books are available for free download. The UNESCO Chair is very pleased to reach different language groups in this way.
Private Supplementary Tutoring in Cambodia
Professor Mark Bray has recently been the Discussant for a presentation entitled Factors Influencing Cambodian Students’ Private Tutoring Engagement at Upper Secondary Schools. The presentation was by Mr Soeung Sopha, and hosted by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI) on August 26, 2022.
Mark Bray’s history of empirical research in Cambodia stretches for a quarter of a century. His work for UNESCO and UNICEF in the 1990s led to a book published in 1999 by UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). The book was entitled The Private Costs of Public Schooling: Household and Community Financing of Primary Education in Cambodia. Expenditures on private tutoring were among the striking components of those household costs.
This book was followed by another in 2005, co-authored with Seng Bunly and entitled Balancing the Books: Household Financing of Basic Education in Cambodia. The research was conducted under the auspices of the World Bank, repeating the earlier sample survey of primary schools and adding lower secondary schools.
Then in the mid-2010s Mark Bray returned to Cambodia to examine patterns in Grades 9 and 12. Among publications are articles in the International Journal of Educational Development (2016) and the Journal of Curriculum Studies (2018).
These historical perspectives greatly assisted Mark Bray in his role for the CDRI seminar. Seoung Sopha had collected data on tutoring provided by serving teachers, highlighting some of the ethical issues that arose when such teachers tutored their existing students. The seminar heard about the justifications given by teachers for such activities, including supplementing their salaries and completing the curriculum during a tight school day. It also heard the perspectives of students, including the pressures they felt from the teachers in what can be called “a privatised component of the public system”.
Cambodia patterns also show the resilience of private tutoring despite government policies that to reduce or remove it. Once such practices become engrained in the culture, Professor Bray remarked, they are very difficult to eliminate. Thus, even if official policies sanction such tutoring, much continues underground. Analysis of the Cambodian picture contributes usefully to the international picture as well as to the national one.
Shadow Education in the Middle East
The UNESCO Chair is glad to announce the publication of Shadow Education in the Middle East: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications. It is a path-breaking study of a region that has received little attention in the shadow education literature, and can be downloaded here.
As mentioned in an earlier post (scroll down for details), the book has been written by Mark Bray, who holds the UNESCO Chair, and Anas Hajar who is an Associate Professor at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan.
The book focuses on 12 Arabic-speaking countries of the region. Six of these countries are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), i.e. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. The other six are Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and Yemen. The GCC members are known for the prosperity brought by oil resources, and can usefully be compared as a group with the other six. At the same time, much diversity exists within each group.
The work has been conducted in conjunction with the Centre for International Research in Supplementary Tutoring (CIRIST) at East China Normal University and the UNESCO Regional Center for Educational Planning (RCEP) in United Arab Emirates. The UNESCO Chair much appreciates this collaboration.
Asia-Pacific Meeting of Education Ministers
From 5 to 7 June 2022, UNESCO and UNICEF jointly organised the second Asia-Pacific Regional Education Ministers Conference (APREMC II). The event was held in Bangkok, Thailand. A core focus was the Five-Year Progress Review of SDG 4 – Education 2030 in Asia-Pacific released in September 2021 by UNESCO and UNICEF.
The report showed that despite overall progress, most countries surveyed were not on track to achieving the fourth of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Asia-Pacific region, it said, was facing a learning crisis well before the COVID-19 pandemic, and that this crisis had been alarmingly exacerbated by the broader impact of COVID-19 on societies and economies.
The Ministers Conference was also an occasion for regional launch of UNESCO’s 2021/2 Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report on non-state actors in education. HKU made a strong contribution, with presentations first by Mark Bray on private supplementary tutoring (shadow education), and then by Nirmala Rao on early childhood education.
Re-envisioning the Future of Education
UNESCO’s Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEP) has launched its International Science and Evidence Based Education (ISEE) Assessment. It brings together multi-disciplinary expertise on educational systems and reforms from a wide range of stakeholders. The report is a huge accomplishment, based on four working groups for:
- 1. Education and Human Flourishing,
- 2. Education and Context,
- 3. Education and the Learning Experience, and
- 4. Education Data and Evidence.
The HKU UNESCO Chair particularly contributed to Working Group 2. Its section of the report can be downloaded here. Specific foci include political economy implications for efficiency, equity and social justice. The report also addresses education technology, neuroscience, and curriculum in a changing world.
Book about comparative education research now available
The best-selling (and, we think, most-read) book published by the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong is Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, edited by Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason. It is now available in 11 languages (including English), among which Turkish is the latest addition.
The first edition, published in 2007, is available in:
GEM Report on Non-State Actors in Education
Among UNESCO’s flagship annual publications is the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report. These reports monitor progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and particularly Goal 4 which is about education. The thematic focus of the report released in December 2021 is Non-State Actors in Education: Who Chooses? Who Loses?.
Team members associated with the UNESCO Chair made major inputs to this year’s report, particularly on the theme of shadow education. Zhang Wei, who completed her PhD at HKU and was then Secretary of the Comparative Education Research Centre before moving to East China Normal University, was a 2020 GEM Fellow and member of the GEM Advisory Board. She wrote a far-reaching Background Paper about ‘The Nature, Dynamics and Regulatory Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring’. It is a global work with case-study material on China that is especially valuable in the light of far-reaching regulations issued in July 2021.
Allied, Mark Bray wrote a Background Paper on shadow education in Sub-Saharan Africa. It was subsequently expanded to include North Africa and, as explained elsewhere on this website, published (in English, French and Portuguese) as a book. It can downloaded here. It also included remarks about regulations that were highlighted in the report.
Other works cited in the report include the paper on shadow education in India written by Shalini Bhorkar and Mark Bray and published in the International Journal of Educational Development, the CERC book entitled Regulating Private Tutoring For Public Good by Mark Bray and Ora Kwo, and Bray’s Presidential Address to the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) published in the Comparative Education Review.
After Africa comes the Middle East
Hot on the heels of the book on Shadow Education in Africa (scroll down for information) will be the next on the Middle East. It is being co-authored by UNESCO Chairholder Mark Bray and Anas Hajar of Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan. Anas is a Syrian national with much knowledge of the wider Middle East, and has researched shadow education in England and Kazakhstan.
The book focuses on 12 countries of the region, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. In all these countries, Arabic is the (or an) official language, and they have much shared culture. Yet they also display much diversity, especially in economics. Six of the countries are prosperous members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), while the others are lower-income neighbours.
A key partner in preparation of the book is the UNESCO Regional Center for Educational Planning (RCEP) in the UAE. RCEP helped collect data from Ministries of Education, and on 22 November 2021 hosted an online Policy Forum.
The Policy Forum was a bilingual English and Arabic event, and focused on a draft of the book in both languages. It was attended by 33 participants, including personnel from Ministries of Education across the region, researchers with strong expertise in the theme, teachers, and tutors. Many participants also drew on their own experiences as former students and/or as parents.
The Policy Forum validated the core messages of the manuscript while also providing additional insights and access to follow-up materials. Participants indicated that the event also stimulated their own thinking about appropriate actions to address shadow education more effectively.
Portuguese translation of the book about Shadow Education in Africa
In November 2021, UNESCO Chairholder Mark Bray launched the Portuguese translation of his book about Shadow Education in Africa. The book is published by the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong in conjunction with the UNESCO Chair. It appeared first in English, followed by French and now Portuguese. Arabic is on the way, completing the set of four main official languages spoken on the African continent.
The book is an elaboration of a background paper for UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report, of which the 2021/22 iteration focuses on non-state actors in education. Shadow education features prominently in that report, in large measure reflecting the inputs of Professor Bray and colleagues.
The Portuguese translation was prepared by Candido Gomes in conjunction with the UNESCO Chair in Youth, Education and Society at the Catholic University of Brazil. It was supported by Alexandre Ventura at the University of Aveiro in Portugal and by Rui Da Silva at the Centre for African Studies of the University of Porto.
The book was launched on 19 November 2021 at a conference hosted by the University of Aveiro. The conference focused on the management of education in times of uncertainty. Within this context, Professor Bray first gave a keynote address on shadow education worldwide, before turning specifically to Africa with a launch of the book.
The event was chaired by Alexandre Ventura who is himself a noted researcher on shadow education in Portugal and Brazil and who has excellent connections with Lusophone African countries including Angola and Mozambique. As a former Deputy Minister of Education in Portugal, Professor Ventura is helping to call the book to the attention of policy makers as well as researchers.
French-language edition of Shadow Education Book discussed by Ministers of Education in Africa
On 15 April 2021, CONFEMEN (Conférence des ministres de l’Éducation des États et gouvernements de la Francophonie), which is headquartered in Senegal, hosted high-level webinar focused on the book written by Mark Bray L’éducation de l’ombre en Afrique (i.e. the French translation of the book Shadow Education in Africa: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications).
The event was co-hosted by France Éducation International, which is an arm of the French government responsible for international relations in the education sector.
- Chad: Aboubakar Assidick Tchoroma,
- Gabon: Camelia Ntoutoume-Leclerq,
- Guinea: M. Bah,
- Guinea Bissau: Arcenio Adulai Baldé,
- Senegal: Chaikana Lam, and
- Togo: Dodzi Kokoroko.
Other speakers included:
- Alioune Sall, Director of the African Futures Institute (AFI),
- Manos Antoninis, Director of UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report,
- David Atchoarena, Director of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, and
- Koumbou Boly Barry, Chief of Education in ICESCO, and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education.
All speakers recognized the need to focus more clearly on private supplementary tutoring, especially in the context of social inequalities. More data are needed and wider discussion in order to ‘take the topic out of the shadows’.
Futures of Education: What can and should we anticipate in 2050?
UNESCO has commissioned a high-level International Commission, chaired by the President of Ethiopia, to consider patterns and desirable directions for education in the coming decades. A core theme is ‘Learning to Become’.
The Commission has released a Progress Update for general consultation. Comments submitted by Mark Bray in his role as a UNESCO Chairholder were welcomed by the team in UNESCO Headquarters.
Reaching Audiences through Different Media
Following the launch of the book Shadow Education in Africa: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications (see below), efforts have been made to reach diverse audiences. Two channels for doing so are:
- the UNESCO-IIEP Learning Portal, which has a blog entitled Private Supplementary Tutoring: What Implications for classroom learning?, and
- the parallel blog for the UNESCO Teacher Task Force: Teachers as Tutors: Evidence from Africa.
The book is also the focus of a FreshEd podcast during which Professor Bray was interviewed by Will Brehm.
Shadow Education in Africa
The UNESCO Chair is pleased to announce the latest volume in the Monographs series published by the HKU Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC). Written by Mark Bray, it is entitled Shadow Education in Africa: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Policy Implications. It can be downloaded free of charge or purchased in paper copy for HK$100 or US$16 including postage through this website.
The book builds on a Working Paper for UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report, which for the 2021/22 edition focuses on non-state actors in education. Shadow education is recognized as a component on non-state activity of growing scale and significance.
The book addresses both Sub-Saharan and North Africa, and draws many lessons from comparative analysis. It is the first comprehensive work on shadow education in Africa. Particular attention is paid to regular teachers who also provide tutoring, and to private-sector enterprises.
Portuguese and Arabic translations will be published in due course.
Translations of shadow education books
Two new translations have been published of books by Mark Bray about shadow education.
The first is a Thai translation of the book Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?, published by UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). It brings to 21 the total number of languages in which this book is available. Following the original in English, translations have been made into Arabic, Armenian, Azeri, Bengali, Chinese, Farsi, French, Georgian, Hindi, Kannada, Korean, Mongolian, Nepali, Polish, Portuguese, Sinhala, Spanish, Thai, Urdu, and Uzbek. The Thai version is published by Chulalongkorn University Press.
The second book is the Myanmar-language version of Shadow Education in Myanmar: Private Supplementary tutoring and its Policy Implications. This book, co-published by CERC and UNESCO and with collaboration of Yangon University of Education, was authored by Mark Bray, Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze and Ora Kwo. Both versions may be downloaded free of charge from here.
UNESCO GEM Report Fellowship
UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report has established a prestigious Fellowship to “strengthen the evidence base on education … and reinforce the links between research, policy, and practice”. The fellowships are “open to exceptional individuals who … demonstrate a potential for transformational impact in their domain, and share a commitment to provide more people with better educational opportunities”.
We are delighted that Professor Zhang Wei, from East China Normal University (ECNU) won this Fellowship for the 2020 round, having been selected among the four from over 150 applicants. Prior to moving to ECNU in November 2018, Professor Zhang worked closely with the HKU UNESCO Chair, first as a PhD student and then as a Postdoctoral Fellow.
The Fellowship has permitted Professor Zhang to explore new and existing data on shadow education, drawing on her experience in Cambodia, China, Denmark, Japan and Myanmar. The analysis explores recent developments in various settings, ranging from East Asia (with the longest history of the practice) to the Nordic countries (with the shortest history), as well as policies that have unintentionally legitimized tutoring.
UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report on Non-State Actors
The 2021 iteration of UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report will be about the roles of non-state actors in education. This is a very important theme, covering both for-profit and not-for-profit providers and including a focus on shadow education.
At the invitation of the GEM Report team, Professor Mark Bray prepared a blog about shadow education, available here. It highlights the scale of the phenomenon in a range of countries, and comments on its implications not only for learning but also for social inequalities.
With other colleagues, Professor Mark Bray is now preparing further inputs, helping to shape the agenda and to focus attention on themes.
UNESCO’s Futures of Education Initiative
UNESCO has launched a visionary Futures of Education initiative, to which UNESCO Chairs have made contributions. Their inputs have been collected in a volume published in time for the initial meeting of its distinguished Commission led by the President of Ethiopia.
The volume, entitled Humanistic Futures of Learning: Perspectives from UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks may be downloaded here in English and French. From the HKU Chair in Comparative Education, Professor Mark Bray contributed a chapter on shadow education, showing how the phenomenon has changed the nature of schooling across the world and will continue to expand and adapt.
For details of the context for the UNESCO initiative, please visit the website.
The world’s oldest and largest association for comparative study of education is the US-based Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), founded in 1956. From 14-18 April 2019, the Society held its annual conference in San Francisco, USA. It was the largest event in CIES history, with 3,800 registrants.
The conference theme was ‘Education for Sustainability’, with a particular focus on the United Nations’ 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). UNESCO was well represented in both plenary and parallel sessions.
Within the conference, a pair of sessions focused on the HKU work on the shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring. This can be linked to the SDGs in multiple ways, including understanding of the impact of marketization of education in neoliberal economies and attention to the quality and quantity of education received by different social groups. The photo shows some members of the HKU shadow education team, namely Mark Bray, Feng Siyuan, Zhang Wei, Pubali Ghosh and Shalini Bhorkar.
Related, the book table for HKU’s Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) was shared with East China Normal University (ECNU) for their newly-launched ECNU Review of Education. Vol.2 (1) of the journal is a special issue on private supplementary tutoring co-edited by Zhang Wei and Mark Bray. It is available for open access on the internet, and fitted excellently with the discussions during the conference.
Deepening understanding of shadow education in Myanmar
Peter Suante is a PhD student at the University of Hong Kong and, like Pubali Ghosh who prepared the item below for this website, is focusing on private supplementary tutoring and supported by the UNESCO Chair. His work focuses on Myanmar, and builds on his Master’s dissertation completed in Beijing Normal University in 2017.
Peter also provided valued support for the research project funded by UNESCO and led by Mark Bray, published by CERC in 2020 and available for free download here. That project focused only on Yangon, while Peter’s research focuses on Mandalay Region and Chin State.
Private tuition, known in Myanmar as Kyushin (a word adapted from English), has evolving into a socio-cultural norm in Myanmar but has received very little research or policy attention. The quantitative component of my research indicated that 78.7% of the 1,301 surveyed Grade-11 students received at least one form of private tuition. This was lower than the 86.2% recorded in the CERC-UNESCO study, but very noteworthy since my sample included rural and remote communities. Some of this tutoring was delivered on a one-to-one or small-group basis by teachers, while other students joined tutorial centres that advertised their existence in public locations (see picture).
One dimension of my research observes that private tutoring may replace rather than supplement schooling. Students had to be registered in schools in order to sit the national examinations; but many came only to have their attendance recorded, and nearly half indicated in the survey responses that if they had a choice they would only attend private tutoring.
Like Pubali Ghosh (see below), I needed to secure the confidence of teachers, tutors and students when conducting my research, not least because much tutoring provision contravenes regulations. Government teachers are officially prohibited from providing tutoring, and many tutorial centres operate on a shaky legal basis. Further, schools are reluctant to admit that actual attendance is less than official attendance because they fear sanction from the authorities and reduction of resources. I have therefore devoted much attention to informal networking as well as to the more formal sides of the research. In some respects it has been easier to do this in rural areas, since people have been more willing to welcome visitors, especially after management of the challenging roads by motorcycle!
It is a pleasure and privilege at the University of Hong Kong to work with peers and seniors who have themselves investigated shadow education in a wide range of contexts. I recently shared methodological aspects of my work with members of our Special Interest Group (SIG). The meeting included participants having investigated the theme in Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hong Kong, India and Mainland China. I am very glad to add Myanmar to this list.
Excitements and challenges of fieldwork for doctoral research
Pubali Ghosh is a PhD student at the University of Hong Kong, supported by the UNESCO Chair. Her research focuses on private supplementary tutoring in West Bengal, India. It builds on her excellent Masters dissertation, from which was published a paper in the International Journal of Comparative Education and Development that won a prestigious Literati Award. Here she outlines her doctoral research and some experiences when conducting fieldwork.
Shadow Education is ubiquitous in West Bengal. Participation is particularly high among senior secondary students, with more than 90% of them receiving tutoring. My research follows a qualitative longitudinal approach to understand how senior secondary students construct decisions regarding private tutoring. I am tracking 30 students through their educational decision-making journey, with each student being interviewed multiple times over 1-2 years. I have also interviewed 85 other actors in the West Bengal tutoring ecosystem, including teachers, tutors, teacher-tutors, principals, and parents. A pilot questionnaire survey of 356 students set the background.
Initial access to participants was challenging for two reasons. First, private tutoring is sensitive due its semi-illegality; and second, senior secondary students are extremely busy preparing for multiple higher education entrance examinations. Sometimes participants agreed to appointments but did not arrive.
Several lessons were learned from these initial experiences, and strategies were employed to meet this challenge. For example, trust was very important. This involved developing rapport, and telling participants about my background and research purpose. Some gatekeepers helped to secure participants, but more valuable was snowball sampling to approach participants through their friends, relatives or acquaintances. Informal group discussions and brainstorming sessions with prospective participants was also effective.
I am now in the process of writing up, and am excited to be able to contribute to conceptual understanding through this work. I am glad to help remedy the neglect of the topic in India, and to contribute to the international literature.
Regulating Private Tutoring in China
In 2018, the China’s national government introduced far-reaching regulations for the private tutoring industry. The regulations sought to protect consumers and to reduce stress and study burden on students. The 2014 book by Mark Bray and Ora Kwo entitled Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia was a significant input to the drafting process. This book had been published by the HKU Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) in conjunction with UNESCO, drawing on a pair of international policy forums the previous year.
In April 2019, the China Association for Non-Government Education (CANGE) convened a meeting in Beijing to consider the enactment of the new regulations and the needs and scope for fine-tuning to serve different types of private tutoring and different communities around the country. The CANGE is a bridge between the tutoring industry and the government, and both sides were well represented. Approximately 1,000 participants from all parts of the country attended the meeting.
Mark Bray presented a keynote address in the opening session. He drew on the 2014 book and on his further research together with that by HKU team members and others including East China Normal University (ECNU). “This was a very significant event,” he remarked, “and it is exciting to see ways in which our research is having impact at the levels of policy and practice throughout China.”