# Professor LEUNG, Frederick K. S., BBS

## Professor LEUNG, Frederick K. S., BBS

## 梁貫成

Chairman of Faculty Board, Faculty of Education

Kintoy Professor in Mathematics Education

Chair Professor

Academic Unit of Teacher Education and Learning Leadership

B.Sc., Adv.Dip.Ed., M.Ed. (HKU); Ph.D (Lond); Cert.Ed. (HKU)

[javascript protected email address]

(852) 2859 2355

Room 312, Runme Shaw Building

Research Expertise

- Curriculum and Instruction
- International and Comparative Education
- Mathematics Education
- Primary and Secondary Education
- Teacher Education and Development

Prospective PhD/ EdD/ MPhil Applications

Links

**Areas of Expertise:**

- Mathematics teaching and learning in Hong Kong
- Comparative studies of mathematics education, including student achievement and classroom practices
- Influence of culture (and in particular the East Asian culture) on mathematics teaching and learning
- Mathematics education of children of ethnic minorities in China
- Influence of language on the learning of mathematics

**Research Interest:**

- Comparative studies of mathematics education, including student achievement and classroom practices
- Influence of culture (and in particular the East Asian culture) on mathematics teaching and learning
- Mathematics education of children of ethnic minorities in China
- Influence of language on the learning of mathematics

- Honorary Member, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), 2019
- Distinguished Alumnus, Faculty of Science, The University of Hong Kong, 2019
- Bronze Bauhinia Star (BBS), HKSAR Government, 2017
- Changjiang Scholar (awarded by the Ministry of Education, China), 2015
- World Outstanding Chinese Award, World Chinese Business Investment Foundation, 2015
- Hans Freudenthal Medal, International Commission on Mathematical Instruction, 2013
- Outstanding Researcher Student Supervisor Award, Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong, 2008
- Outstanding Researcher Award, Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong, 2006
- Fulbright Senior Scholar, March to August 2003, UCLA

**On-going projects:**

**"Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2019”**

Principal Investigator, contract research project by EDB

Contract sum of HK$7,965,570 funded by EDB

(Started 12 April 2017, due to end 31 March 2022)

**Completed projects:**

**“Analytics-Supported Collaborative Observation of Videos: The effect on student engagement and achievement in mathematics”**

Co-Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$740,200 by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(November 2018 - February 2021)

**“Promoting STEM Education through Learning and Teaching Mathematical Modeling and its Application”**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$2,909,500 by the Quality Education Fund of EDB

(November 2017 - October 2020)

**“Education Equity in Hong Kong: Secondary analysis of the factors that contribute to Hong Kong students’ mathematics performance in Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015”**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$274,992 by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(GRF Project Number: 17602918)

(January 2019 – December 2019)

**“The Influence of the Chinese and English Languages on Students’ Processing of Mathematics Word Problems”**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$303,950 by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(GRF Project Number: 17615115)

(November 2015 – February 2018)

**“An Exploratory Study of the Number Sense of Children in Hong Kong and Children of the Miao People”**

Principal Investigator, Seed Funding for Basic Research, HKU

Contract sum of HK$44,925 funded by HKU

(April 2015 – September 2017)

**“Fundamental challenges in using digital technologies in secondary mathematics classrooms: a comparison between different paradigms, over time, and between places”**

Co-Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$439,076 by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(GRF Project Number: 17406914)

(January 2015 – March 2017)

** “Further Analysis of the TIMSS 2011 Hong Kong Findings”**

(Supplemental contract of the “Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011”)

Principal Investigator, contract research project by EDB

Contract sum of HK$ 991,012 funded by EDB

(July 2013 – June 2014)

**“Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015”**

Principal Investigator, contract research project by EDB

Contract sum of HK$ 9,157,527 funded by EDB

(May 2013 - August 2022)

**“Mathematical Tasks in Grade-8 classrooms: A Cross-cultural study between Australia, Hong
Kong and Singapore”**

Co-Investigator

Contract sum of HK$ 700,900 funded by GRF

(August 2011 – April 2014)

**"Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011"**

Principal Investigator, contract research project by EDB

Contract sum of HK$ 6,758,123 funded by EDB

(June 2009 - May 2013)

**"Professional Competence of Future Mathematics Teachers in Germany and Hong Kong"**

Principal Investigator,

Supported by a grant of HK$48,400 from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under the 2008/2009 Germany/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme

(November 2008 - October 2011)

**"Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007"**

Principal Investigator, contract research project by EDB

Contract sum of HK$3,784,876 funded by EDB

(November 2006 - July 2009)

**"The Chinese Pedagogy of Mathematics: an exploration from an international comparative study perspective"**

Co-Investigator

Supported by a grant of 188,592MOP by the Academic Committee of the University of Macau

(August 2004 - November 2007)

**"Study on Small Class Teaching"**

Principal Investigator, sub-contract by Professor Maurice Galton,

Contract sum of HK$395,294 funded by EMB

(July 2005 - October 2007)

**"Quality Classroom Practice in Mathematics: An International Collaborative Study of the Eighth Grade"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$1,149,762 from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(September 2002 - February 2007)

**"An Inquiry into the Characteristics of East Asian Mathematics Classrooms through International Comparison"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by grant of HK$40,000 from CRCG, HKU

(October 2004 - September 2006)

**"Behind the High Achievement of Students: A Study of Mathematics Lessons in Korea"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of US$30,000 by the World Bank-GDN Regional Research Competition, KEDI

(April 2004 - September 2005)

**"The Hong Kong Component of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2003)"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$3 million from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(September 2001 - June 2005)

**"The IEA Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat (TIMSS-R) Video Study"**

Principal Investigator and Collaborator for Hong Kong

Sub-contract research by LessonLab, Inc. (US$97,082), fully funded by the US Government

(September 1998 - August 2003)

**"An Analysis of the Characteristics of Mathematics Classrooms in East Asian Countries of Different Cultures"**

Fulbright Scholar

A scholarship of HK$243,000 funded by the Fulbright Hong Kong Scholar Programme

(March - July 2003)

**"Behind the High Achievement of East Asian Students: A Study of the Mathematics Classrooms in Hong Kong and Korea"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$119,983 from the University of Hong Kong Seed Funding Grants.

(February 2001 - January 2003)

**"Secondary Analysis of the TIMSS-R Data for Hong Kong"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$300,000 from the Quality Education Fund, the Hong Kong SAR Government

(September 2001 - October 2002)

**"The Chinese Pedagogy of Mathematics Education: An Inquiry into its Characteristics through International Comparison"**

Principal Investigator

Supported by a grant of HK$807,817 from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council

(September 2000 - October 2002)

**"The IEA Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat (TIMSS-R)"**

Principal Investigator and National Research Co-ordinator for Hong Kong

Partially funded (US$120,000) by the US Government.

(1998 - 2000)

**"Comparative Study on the Mathematics Curricula of Major Asian and Western Countries"**

Principal Investigator

Contract research by the Education Department (HK$433,650), fully funded by the Hong Kong SAR Government.

(1998 - 1999)

**"An Analysis of the Views of Various Sectors on the Mathematics Curriculum"**

Co-investigator

Contract research by the Education Department (HK$498,750), fully funded by the Hong Kong SAR Government.

(1998 - 1999)

**"The IEA Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)"**

Principal Investigator and National Research Co-ordinator for Hong Kong

Supported by a grant of HK$1.2 million from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council, and a grant of HK$0.48 million from the Hang Seng Bank Limited Hong Kong.

(1991 - 1998)

**"Preparation of Students for Tertiary Education"**

Member of a team headed by Prof. K.M. Cheng

Commissioned and funded (HK$750,000) by the University Grants Council of Hong Kong.

(1995 - 1996)

__Refereed Journal Articles__

Pei, L., Longcamp, M., Leung, F. K. S., & Ouyang, G. (December, 2021). Temporally Resolved Neural Dynamics Underlying Handwriting Subprocesses. NeuroImage, 244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118578.

Guo, M., Hu, X., & Leung, F. K. S. (August, 2021). Culture, Goal Orientations, and Mathematics Achievement among Chinese Students. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1-21.

- Leung, F. K. S. (2021). Jewish culture, Chinese culture, and mathematics education. Educational Studies in Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-021-10034-3.
- Yang, X., Xiong, Q., & Leung, F. K. S. (2021). Focused areas and the research tendency of teacher knowledge in the 21st century. Journal of Comparative Education. [In Chinese]
- Lu, X., Leung, F. K. S., & Li, N. (2020). Teacher agency for integrating history into teaching mathematics in a performance-driven context: a case study of a beginning teacher in China. Educational Studies in Mathematics. DOI: 10.1007/s10649-020-10006-z. (25%)
- Guo, M., Leung, F. K. S., & Hu, X. (2020). Affective determinants of mathematical problem posing: The case of Chinese Miao students. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (20%)
- Guo, M., & Leung, F. K. S. (2020). Achievement goal orientations, learning strategies and mathematics achievement: A comparison of Chinese Miao and Han students. Psychology in the Schools, 1-17. DOI: 10.1002/pits.22424.(40%)
- Barr, D., Chan, D., Garfinkel, S., Hammatt, Z., Ichikawa, I., Kalichman, M., Lalani, E., Lee, I. J., Leung, F., Mah, E., Mayer, T., Palittapongarnpim, P., Sawicka, T., Sham, M. H., Shastri, S., Sun, P., Taylor, P., & Tzeng, O. (2020). First meeting in Asia of the Asia Pacific Research Integrity network. Accountability in Research, 27(2), 99-106. DOI: 10.1080/08989621.2020.1715220. (5%)
- Lu, X., Kaiser, G., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). Mentoring Early Career Mathematics Teachers from the Mentees’ Perspective—a Case Study from China. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. Doi: 10.1007/s10763-019-10027-y. (20%)
- Cui, Y., Zhang, D., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). The Influence of Parental Educational Involvement in Early Childhood on 4th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement. Early Education and Development. DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2019.1677131. (20%)
- Wadanambi, G. M., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). Exploring the influence of pre-service mathematics teachers’ professed beliefs on their practices in the Sri Lankan context. International Journal on Math, Science and Technology Education, Special Issue: The International Conference of Mathematical Views 2018 – Selected Papers, 7(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31129/LUMAT.7.2.405. (40%)
- Cui, Y., Leung, F. K. S., & Zhang, D. (2019). The Effects of Parental Early Educational Participation on Their Children’s Academic Achievements: Based on the Math and Science Data of TIMSS2015 in Hong Kong. Early Education and Development (學前教育研究), 4. (20%) [in Chinese]
- Revina, S., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). Issues Involved in the adoption of realistic Mathematics education in Indonesian culture. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education (CCOM), https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2019.1650636. (40%)
- Yang, X., Leung, F., & Zhang, S. (2019). Junior secondary school students’ conceptions of and approaches to learning mathematics in Mainland China. Sustainability, 11, 2476-2488. (30%)
- Revina, S., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). How the same flowers grow in different soils? The implementation of realistic mathematics education in Utrecht and Jakarta classrooms. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 17(3), 565-589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-018-9883-1. (40%)
- Hu, X., Leung, F. K. S., & Chen, G. (2018). School, family, and student factors behind student attitudes towards science: The case of Hong Kong fourth-graders. International Journal of Educational Research, 92, 135-144. (30%)
- Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Yang, T., Wang, L., Leung, F., & Bao, J. (2018). Introduction of the questionnaire development in national assessment of education quality-math. Journal of Mathematics Education (數學教育學報), 27(5), 8-12. [in Chinese]
- Hu, X., Gong, Y., Lai, C., & Leung, F. K. S. (2018). The relationship between ICT and student literacy in mathematics, reading, and science across 44 countries: A multilevel analysis. Computers & Education, 125, 1-13. (20%)
- Hu, X., Leung, F. K. S., & Teng, Y. (2018). The influence of culture on students' mathematics achievement across 51 countries. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 16, 7-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-018-9899-6.
- Revina, S., & Leung, F. K. S. (2018). Educational borrowing and mathematics curriculum: Realistic mathematics education in the Dutch and Indonesian primary curriculum. International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education, 2(1), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/ijeme.v2i1.8025
- Yuen, M., Chan, S., Chan, C., Fung, D. C. L., Cheung, W. M., Kwan, T., & Leung, F. K. S. (2018). Differentiation in key learning areas for gifted students in regular classes: a project for primary school teachers in Hong Kong. Gifted Education International, 34(1), 36-46 DOI: 1177/0261429416649047. (10%)
- Kutnick, P., Fung, D. C. L., Mok, I. A. C., Leung, F. K. S., Li, J. C. H., Lee, B. P.-Y., & Lai, V. K. W. (2017). Implementing effective group work for mathematical achievement in primary school classrooms in Hong Kong. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(5), 957–978. (10%)
- Fung, D., Kutnick, P., Mok, I., Leung, F. K. S., Lee, B. P. Y., Mai, Y. Y., & Tyler, M. T. (2017). Relationships between teachers’ background, their subject knowledge and pedagogic efficacy, and pupil achievement in primary school mathematics in Hong Kong: An indicative study. International Journal of Educational Research, 81, 119–130. (10%)
- Lu, X., & Leung, F. K. S. (2015). Knowledge quartet: a framework for analysing teachers’ knowledge in teaching. Global Education (全球教育展望), 8, 63-73. [in Chinese] (40%)
- Yang, X., & Leung, F. K. S. (2015). The relationships among pre-service mathematics teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, mathematics teaching, and use of technology in China. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(6), 1363-1378. (40%)
- Leung, K. C., Leung, F. K. S., & Zuo, H. D. (2014). A study of the alignment of learning targets and assessment to generic skills in the new senior secondary mathematics curriculum in Hong Kong. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 43, 115-132. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2014). What can and should we learn from international studies of mathematics achievement? Mathematics Education Research Journal (MERJ), 26(3), 579-605.
- Ding, L., He, J., & Leung, F. K. S. (2014). Relations between subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge: A study of Chinese pre-service teachers on the topic of three-term ratio. The Mathematics Educator, 15(2), 50-76.
- Chen, Q., & Leung, F. K. S. (2013). A comparative study of teachers’ mathematics beliefs in the context of curriculum reform in Hong Kong and Chongqing. The Mathematics Educator, 15(1), 46-65. (40%)
- Lui, R. K.W., & Leung, F. K. S. (2013). Curriculum traditions in Berlin and Hong Kong – A comparative case study of implemented curriculum. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(1), 35-46. (40%)
- Buchholtz, N., Leung, F. K. S., Ding, L., Kaiser, G., Park, K., & Schwarz, B. (2013). Future mathematics teachers’ professional knowledge of elementary mathematics from an advanced standpoint. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(1), 107-1 (30%)
- Yang, X., & Leung, F. K. S. (2013). Conception of expert mathematics teacher: a comparative study between Hong Kong and Chongqing. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(1), 121-132. (40%)
- Lai, M. Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children. Human Movement Science, 31(5), 1328-1339. (25%)
- Lai, M. Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114(2), 433-445. (25%)
- Lui, K. W., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). Textbooks and cultural traditions: A comparative case study of Berlin and Hong Kong. The Mathematics Educator, 13(2), 55 – 72. (40%)
- Zhu, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). Homework and mathematics achievement in Hong Kong: Evidence from the TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(4), 907-9 (40%)
- Lui, K. W., & Leung, F. K. S. (2011). The intended curriculum and cultural traditions – A comparative case study of Berlin and Hong Kong. Journal of the Korean Society of Mathematical Education Series D: Research in Mathematical Education, 15(3), 209-228. (40%)
- Yang, X., & Leung, F. K. S. (2011). Mathematics teaching expertise development approaches and practices: Similarities and differences between Western and Eastern Countries. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43(6-7), 1007-1015. (40%)
- Zhu, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2011). Mathematics achievement of mainland immigrant students in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 31(4), 471-485. (40%)
- Zhu, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2011). Motivation and achievement: Is there an East Asian model?. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(5), 1189-1212. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2008). In the books there are golden houses: Mathematics assessment in East Asia. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 40(6), 983-992.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2006). The impact of ICT tools on our understanding of the nature of mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 26(1), 29-35.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2005). Some characteristics of East Asian mathematics classrooms based on data from the TIMSS 1999 video study. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 60(2), 199-215.
- Leung, F. K. S., & Park, K. (2005). Is mathematics teaching in East Asia conducive to creativity development? – Results from the TIMSS 1999 video study and the learners’ perspective study. Research in Mathematical Education, 9(3), 203-231. (60%)
- Leung, F. K. S., Yung, B. H. W., & Tso, A. S. F. (2005). Digging below the surface: Secondary analysis of TIMSS data for Hong Kong and its implications for educational reform. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 5(3), 329-360. (50%)
- Huang, R., & Leung, F. K. S. (2005). Deconstructing teacher-centeredness and student-centeredness dichotomy: A case study of a Shanghai mathematics lesson. The Mathematics Educator, 15(2), 35-41. (40%)
- Chiu, M. M., Wong, N. Y., Lam, C. C., Wong, P. K. M., Leung, F. K. S., & Mok, I. A. C. (2005). Architectures of mathematics beliefs: Individual and school-level differences among Hong Kong primary 6 students. Educational Research Journal, 20(1), 27-55. (10%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2005). The implications of the third international mathematics and science study (TIMSS) for mathematics curriculum reform in Chinese communities. Journal of Mathematics Education (數學教育學報), 14(1), 7 – 11. [in Chinese] (a key journal in mathematics education)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2003). Issues concerning teacher education in the East Asian region. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education and Development, 6(2), 5-21.
- Huang, R., & Leung F. K. S. (2002). How Pythagoras’ theorem is taught in Czech Republic, Hong Kong and Shanghai: A case study. The International Reviews on Mathematical Education, 34(6), 268-277. (40%)
- Kaiser, G., Leung, F. K. S., Romberg, T., & Yaschenko, I. (2002). International comparisons in mathematics education: An overview. ICM, I, 631–646. (20%)
- Leung, F. K. S., & Park, K. (2002). Competent students, competent teachers?. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 113-129. (70%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2002). Behind the high achievement of East Asian students. Educational Research and Evaluation, 8(1), 87-108.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2001). In search of an East Asian identity in mathematics education. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 47, 35-51.
- Leung, F.K.S. (2001). The traditional Chinese views on mathematics and education: Implications for mathematics education in the new millennium. Journal of Mathematics Education (數學教育學報), 10(3), 5-7. [in Chinese] (a key journal in mathematics education)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2001). Teachers’ attitudes towards mathematics teaching in Beijing, Hong Kong and London. Shuxue Tongbao (數學通報), 8, 2-4. [in Chinese] (a key journal in mathematics education)
- Wong, N. Y., Lam, C. C., Wong, K. M. P., Leung, F. K. S., & Mok, I. A. C. (2001). Students’ views of mathematics learning: A cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong. Education Journal, 29(2), 37-59. (10%)
- Graf, K. D., & Leung, F. K. S. (2000). The Thirteenth ICMI Study on Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 43, 95-116.
- Wong, N. Y., Lam, C. C., Leung, F. K. S., Mok, I. A. C., & Wong, P. K. M. (1999). Holistic reform of the mathematics curriculum – The Hong Kong experience. Research in Mathematical Education, 3(2), 69-88. (10%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (1999). A comparison of junior secondary mathematics teaching in Beijing, Hong Kong and London. Subject Education, 85, 38-45. [in Chinese]
- Leung, F. K. S. (1998). The implications of confucianism for education today. Journal of Thought, 33(2), 25-36.
- Leung, F. K. S. (1995). The mathematics classroom in Beijing, Hong Kong and London. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 29, 297-325.
- Leung, F. K. S. (1992). The meaning of subtraction of negative numbers. Curriculum Forum, 1, 6.
- Leung, F. K. S. (1987). The secondary mathematics curriculum in China. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 18, 35‑57.

__Refereed Book Chapters__

__Refereed Book Chapters__

Leung, F. K. S. (2021). Mathematics core competencies of Chinese students – What are they? In B. Xu, Z. Yan, & X. Lu (Eds.), Beyond Shanghai and PISA - Cognitive and Non-cognitive Competencies of Chinese Students in Mathematics (pp. 315-332). Switzerland: Springer.

Leung, F. K. S., Stillman, G. A., Kaiser, G., & Wong, K. L. (2021). Mathematical modelling education in the cultural contexts of West and East. In F. K. S. Leung, G. A. Stillman, G. Kaiser & K. L. Wong (Eds.) Mathematical modelling education in East and West (pp. 3-16). Switzerland: Springer.

- Abdullah, N. A., & Leung, F. K. S. (2019). Exploring teachers’ values and valuing process in school-based lesson study: A Brunei Darussalam case study. In P. Clarkson, W. T. Seah & J. Pang (Eds.), Values and Valuing in Mathematics Education (pp. 129-141). The Netherlands: Springer, Cham.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2018). Mathematics education of Chinese communities from the perspective of international studies of mathematics achievement. In Y. Cao, F. K. S. Leung. (Eds.), The 21st century mathematics education in China (pp. 3-16). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
- Chen, Q., & Leung, F. K. S. (2017). Chinese teachers' mathematics beliefs in the context of curriculum reform. In L. Fan, N. Y. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese teach mathematics (pp. 401-429). Jiangsu: Phoenix Education Publishing Ltd. [in Chinese]
- Huang, R., & Leung, F. K. S. (2017). Cracking the paradox of the Chinese learners - Looking into the mathematics classrooms in Hong Kong and Shanghai. In L. Fan, N. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics (pp. 274-296). Jiangsu: Phoenix Education Publishing Ltd. [in Chinese]
- Lopez-Real, F. J., Mok, A. I. C., Leung, F. K. S., & Marton, F. (2017). Identifying a pattern of teaching: An analysis of a Shanghai teacher's lessons. In L. Fan, N. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics (pp. 297-319). Jiangsu: Phoenix Education Publishing Ltd. [in Chinese]
- Huang, R., & Leung, F. K. S. (2017). Teaching geometrical concepts through variation: A case study of a Shanghai lesson. In R. Huang & Y. Li (Eds.), Teaching and learning through variations: Confucian heritage meets western theories (pp.151-168). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
- Lui, R. K. W., & Leung, F. K. S. (2017). What mathematics did teachers learn? – Comparison of the school and the pre-service teacher mathematics curricula in Germany and Taiwan. In J. C. K. Lee & K. J. Kennedy (Eds.), Theorizing teaching and learning in Asia and Europe: A conversation between Chinese curriculum and European didactics (pp. 156-173). New York: Routledge.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2015). Comparative study of mathematics classrooms: What can be learned from the TIMSS 1999 video study?. In M. Imprasitha, M. Isoda, , P. Wang-Iverson & B. H. Yeap (Eds.), Lesson study: Challenges in mathematics education (pp. 59-80). New Jersey: World Scientific.
- Chen, Q., & Leung, F. K. S. (2015). Analyzing data and drawing conclusions on teachers’ belief. In B. Pepin & B. Rösken-Winter (Eds.), From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education: Exploring a mosaic of relationships and interactions (pp. 281-294). Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer. (40%)
- Chen, Q., & Leung, F. K. S. (2015). Chinese teachers' mathematics beliefs in the context of curriculum reform. In L. Fan, N. Y. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese teach mathematics: Perspectives from insiders (pp. 529-566). New Jersey: World Scientific. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S., Clarke, D., Park, K., & Holton, D. (2014). How is algebra taught around the world?. In F. K. S. Leung, K. Park, D. Holton & D. Clarke (Eds.), Algebra teaching around the world (pp. 1-5). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (60%)
- Park, K., & Leung, F. K. S. (2014). Eye of the beholder: The discrepancy between the teacher’s perspectives and students’ perspectives on algebra lessons in Korea. In F. K. S. Leung, K. Park, D. Holton & D. Clarke (Eds.), Algebra teaching around the world (pp. 99-112). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (40%)
- Huang, R., Mok, I. A. C., & Leung, F. K. S. (2014). Teaching algebraic concepts in Chinese classrooms: A case study of systems of linear equations. In F. K. S. Leung, K. Park, D. Holton & D. Clarke (Eds.), Algebra teaching around the world (pp. 191-212). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (20%)
- Leung, F. K. S., & Park, K. (2014). Comparing educational achievements. In M. Bray, B. Adamson & M. Mason (Eds.), Comparative education research – Approaches and methods (pp. 387-414). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong (80%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2013). Technology in the mathematics curriculum. In M. A. Clements, A. J. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick & F. K. S. Leung (Eds.), Third international handbook of mathematics education (pp. 517-524). New York: Springer.
- Clements, M. A., Keitel, C., Bishop, A. J., Kilpatrick, J., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). From the few to the many: Historical perspectives on who should learn mathematics. In M. Clements, A. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick & F. Leung (Eds.), Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 7 – 40). New York: Springer.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2011). The significance of IEA studies for education in East Asia. In C. Papanastasiou, T. Plomp & E. C. Papanastasiou (Eds.), IEA 1958-2008 - 50 years of experiences and memories (pp. 389-409). Nicosia: Research Center of the Kykkos Monastery.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2010). The mathematics classroom in Beijing, Hong Kong and London. In A. J. Bishop (Ed.), Mathematics Education (pp.133-156). London: Routledge.
- Leung, F. K. S., & Li, Y. (2010). Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices in East Asia: An introduction. In F. K. S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia - Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices (pp. 1-8). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (75%)
- Li, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2010). Practices and changes in mathematics curriculum and teacher education in selected education systems in East Asia: What can we learn?. In F. K. S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia - Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices (pp. 233-244). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (25%)
- Leung, F. K. S., Lee, A. M. S., Leung, A. Y. L., Lopez-Real, F., Mok, I. A. C., & Wong, K. L. (2010). What can we teach mathematics teachers? Lessons from Hong Kong. In F. K. S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia - Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices (pp. 153-167). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2010). IEA studies in mathematics and science. In B. McGaw, P. Peterson & E. Baker (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education, 3rd edition (pp. 650-655). Elsevier.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2008). Chinese culture, Islamic culture and mathematics education. In P. Clarkson & N. Presmeg (Eds.), Critical issues in mathematics education (pp. 135-147). New York: Springer.
- Leung, F. K. S. (2008). The significance of the ICMI study on mathematics education in East Asia and the West. In M. Menghini, F. Furinghetti, L. Giacardi & F. Arzarello (Eds.), The first century of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (1908-2008). Reflecting and shaping the world of mathematics education (pp. 223-230). Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.
- Postlethwaite, T. N., & Leung, F. K. S. (2006). Comparing educational achievements. In M. Bray, B. Adamson & M. Mason (Eds.), Comparative education research – Approaches and methods (pp. 215-239). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong. (40%)
- Park, K., & Leung, F. K. S. (2006). Mathematics lessons in Korea: Teaching with systematic variation. In D. J. Clarke, C. Keitel & Y. Shimizu (Eds.), Mathematics classrooms in twelve countries: The insider's perspective (pp. 247-261). Rotterdam: Sense Pubs. (40%)
- Huang, R., Mok, I. A. C., & Leung, F. K. S. (2006). Repetition or variation: Practising in the mathematics classroom in China. In D. J. Clarke, C. Keitel & Y. Shimizu (Eds.), Mathematics classrooms in twelve countries: The insider's perspective (pp. 263-274). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (20%)
- Leung, F. K. S., Mok, I. A. C., & Huang, R. (2006). Characteristics of the school system in China: Hong Kong, Macau and Shanghai. In D. J. Clarke, C. Keitel & Y. Shimizu (Eds.), Mathematics classrooms in twelve countries: The insider's perspective (pp. 331-333). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (20%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (March, 2006). Mathematics education in East Asia and the West: Does culture matter?. In F. K. S. Leung, K.-D. Graf & F. J. Lopez-Real (Eds.), Mathematics education in different cultural traditions: A comparative study of East Asia and the West: The 13th ICMI Study (pp. 21-46). New York: Springer.
- Park, K., & Leung, F. K. S. (2006). A comparative study of the mathematics textbooks of China, Hong Kong, England, Japan, Korea, and the United States. In F. K. S. Leung, K.-D. Graf & F. J. Lopez-Real (Eds.), Mathematics education in different cultural traditions: A comparative study of East Asia and the West: The 13th ICMI Study (pp. 227-238). New York: Springer. (40%)
- Huang, R., & Leung, F. K. S. (2005). Building a coherent and progressive lesson by adopting teaching with variation: A case study of a Shanghai lesson. In N. Y. Wong (Ed.), Revisiting mathematics education in Hong Kong for the new millennium (pp. 282-305). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Mathematics Education. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (2005). The implications of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study for mathematics curriculum reform in Chinese communities. In N.Y. Wong (Ed.), Revisiting mathematics education in Hong Kong for the new millennium (pp. 226–253). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Mathematics Education.
- Huang, R., & Leung, F. K. S. (2004). Cracking the paradox of the Chinese learners — Looking into the mathematics classrooms in Hong Kong and Shanghai. In L. Fan , N. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics: Perspectives from insiders (pp. 348-381). New Jersey: World Scientific. (40%)
- Lopez-Real, F. J., Mok, A. I. C., Leung, F. K. S., & Marton, F. (2004). Identifying a pattern of teaching: An analysis of a Shanghai teacher’s lessons. In L. Fan, N. Wong, J. Cai & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics: Perspectives from insiders (pp. 382-412). New Jersey: World Scientific. (15%)
- Park, K., & Leung, F. K. S. (2003). Factors contributing to East Asian students’ high achievement in mathematics: The case of Korea. In TIMSS and Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education (pp. 7-19). Singapore: The Association of Mathematics Educators. (40%)
- Leung, F. K. S. (1999). The traditional Chinese views of mathematics and education: Implications for mathematics education in the new millennium. In C. Hoyles, C. Morgan & G. Woodhouse (Eds.), Rethinking the mathematics curriculum (pp. 240-247). London: Falmer Press Ltd.
- Leung, F. K. S. (1989). The Chinese culture and mathematics learning. In C. Keitel (Ed.), Mathematics, education, and society (pp. 128-130). Paris: UNESCO.

__Edited Books__

__Edited Books__

- Leung, F. K. S., Stillman, G. A., Kaiser, G., & Wong, K. L. (Eds.) (2021). Mathematical modelling education in East and West. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66996-6
- Cao, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (Eds.). (2018). The 21st century mathematics in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
- Leung, F. K. S., Park, K., Holton, D., & Clarke, D. (Eds.). (2014). Algebra teaching around the world. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
**Clements, M. A., Bishop, A. J., Keitel, C., Kilpatrick, J., & Leung, F. K. S. (Eds.). (2013). Third international handbook on mathematics education, New York: Springer.**- Leung, F. K. S., & Li, Y. (Eds.). (2010). Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia - Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
- Leung, F. K. S., Graf, K. D., & Lopez-Real, F. J. (Eds.). (2006). Mathematics education in different cultural traditions: A comparative study of East Asia and the West: The 13th ICMI Study. New York: Springer.
**Bishop, A. J., Clements, M. A., Keitel, C., Kilpatrick, J., & Leung, F. K. S. (Eds.). (2003). Second international handbook on mathematics education. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.**

- School Manager, Tin Ka Ping Seconday School (since 6/2019)
- Member, Research and Development Committee of Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (since 9/2015)
- Supervisor, St. Stephen's College (since 9/2009)
- Adviser, Hong Kong Science Museum (since 1/2007)
- Supervisor, St. Stephen's College Preparatory School (since 9/2005)
- Council member of St. Stephen's College (since 4/1997)

- President of International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) (Since 2021)
- State High-End Project Foreign Expert, State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs, China, 2018
- Honorary Chairman of the Academic Committee of the Asia Centre for Mathematics Education, East China Normal University, China, 2018
- Distinguished Visiting Professor and Academic Adviser of Collaborative Innovation Centre of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, China, 2017
- Distinguished Visiting Professor, Southwest University, China, 2015
- Member of the Standing Committee, International Association for the Evaluation of Academic Achievement (IEA), 2007–2010
- Member at Large of the Executive Committee, International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI), 2003–2009
- Member of Expert Team to evaluate key universities in China, Higher Education Evaluation Center, Ministry of Education, China, 2007
- Consultant, World Bank (Project BERMUTU (Better Employment and Redeployment Management and Universal Teacher Upgrading) on Teacher Education in Indonesia), 2006–2012
- Universitat-21 Fellow, September to December 2002, University of Melbourne