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Professor BRAY, Mark

Personal Particulars

Professor BRAY, Mark

貝 磊

BA (Newcastle upon Tyne), MSc, PhD (Edinburgh)

Chair Professor

UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education
President, Comparative & International Education Society
Director, Comparative Education Research Centre

Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences Education

Tel: (852) 2219 4194

Location: Room 411, Runme Shaw Building

Areas of Expertise:

Comparative Education; Shadow Education (Private Supplementary Tutoring)

Areas of Expertise

Research Interests:
Shadow Education (Private Tutoring); Comparative education; Education policy-making and planning

Awards
  1. 2013-02-01: Best Book Award: Comparative & International Education Society (CIES), Higher Education SIG [USA], UNESCO-IIEP
  2. 2013-01-01: Prestigious Fellowship: Humanities and Social Sciences Panel (HSSP) of the Hong Kong Research Grants Council
  3. 2000-11-01: Fellow of the Hong Kong Educational Research Association (HKERA) [Award "for distinction and sustained contribution to the field of educational research"]: Hong Kong
  4. 1997-07-01: Award for the article 'Education Reform in a Small State: Bhutan's New Approach to Primary Education', International Journal of Educational Reform: Gideon Hawley Award, 1996, For the best article in the International Journal of Educational Reform
  5. 1996-07-01: Award for the article 'Levels of Comparison in Educational Studies: Different Insights from Different Literatures and the Value of Multilevel Analyses' by Bray, T.M. & Thomas, R.M. (1995). Harvard Educational Review, 65(3), pp.472-490: Outstanding International Study of the Year, 1996. American Educational Research Association
Projects
Principal investigator
  1. 2015/2016: Private Supplementary Tutoring: Scale, Nature and Implications for Secondary Schooling in Shanghai, General Research Fund (GRF) ($751,264)
  2. 2013/2014: Constructing a Theoretical Model of the Relationship Between Education Policy and Participation in Private Tutoring in Cambodia, General Research Fund (GRF) ($320,497)
  3. 2011/2012: Private Supplementary Tutoring: Scale, Nature and Implications for Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong, General Research Fund (GRF) ($559,537)
  4. 2000/2001: Community financing of education: comparative perspectives, The Aga Khan Foundation - General Award ($20,000)
  5. 2000/2001: Strategic development of higher education in Macau, Macau Government - General Award ($956,000)
  6. 1999/2000: Comparative study of education in Hong Kong and Macau, Macau Government - General Award ($1,010,000)
  7. 1997/1998: Community financing of education: comparative perspectives, The Aga Khan Foundation - General Award ($200,000)
  8. 1997/1998: Comparative study of education in Hong Kong and Macau, Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund ($20,000)
  9. 1997/1998: Household financing of education in East Asia, Asian Development Bank (ADB) - General Award ($80,000)
  10. 1996/1997: Educational development in small states, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($350,000)
  11. 1996/1997: Household financing of education in East Asia, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - General Award ($250,000)
  12. 1995/1996: Educational development in small states, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($150,000)
  13. 1995/1996: Theories and methods in comparative education research, Other Funding Scheme
  14. 1994/1995: Household financing of education in East Asia, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - General Award ($300,000)
  15. 1992/1993: Education and transition in Macau, and comparisons with Hong Kong, Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund ($3,230)
  16. 1991/1992: Education and decolonisation, Other Funding Scheme
  17. 1991/1992: Educational development in small states, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($300,000)
  18. 1988/1989: The organisation and management of Ministries of Education in small states, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($500,000)
  19. 1987/1988: Bi-sessional and shift schooling, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($50,000)
  20. 1985/1986: Community financing of education, The Commonwealth Secretariat - General Award ($400,000)
Co-Investigator
  1. 1992/1993: The school management initiative - its impact on Hong Kong secondary schools, General Research Fund (GRF) ($512,000)
Publications
Articles
  1. Bray, TM., Liu, J., Zhang, W., Kobakhidze, MN. (2016). Confiance, défiance et (abus d’) autorité dans l’éducation au Cambodge: Leçons tirées de l’école de l’ombre. Revue international d’éducation de Sèvres.
  2. Liu, J., Bray, TM. (2016). Determinants of demand for private supplementary tutoring in China: findings from a national survey. Education Economics.
  3. Zhang, W., Bray, TM. (2016). Micro-neoliberalism in China: Public-Private Interactions at the Confluence of Mainstream and Shadow Education. Journal of Education Policy.
  4. Bray, TM., Kobakhidze, MN., Liu, J., Zhang, W. (2016). The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia. International Journal of Educational Development.
  5. Bray, TM. (2015). A matter of trust? The expansion of the shadow education. Case studies: India, Malaysia, Taiwan. Revue Internationale d’education de Sevres.
  6. Bray, TM., Manzon, M. (2015). Comparative Education and Teacher Education in Singapore and Hong Kong: Comparisons over Time as well as Place. Comparative Education Review, 比较教育研究.
  7. Bray, M., Liu, J. (2015). Conducting research into private supplementary tutoring: methods and approaches. Peking University Education Review, 北京大學敎育評論.
  8. Bray, TM., KOBAKHIDZE, M. (2015). Evolving ecosystems in education: The nature and implications of private supplementary tutoring in Hong Kong. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education.
  9. Zhang, W., Bray, TM. (2015). Shadow Education In Chongqing, China: Factors underlying Demand And Policy Implications. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy.
  10. Chan, C., Bray, TM. (2014). Marketized private tutoring as a supplement to regular schooling: Liberal Studies and the shadow sector in Hong Kong secondary education. Journal of Curriculum Studies.
  11. Bray, TM., Kobakhidze, MN. (2014). Measurement Issues in Research on Shadow Education: Challenges and Pitfalls Encountered in TIMSS and PISA. Comparative Education Review.
  12. Bray, TM. (2014). The impact of shadow education on student academic achievement: Why the research is inconclusive and what can be done about it. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  13. Bray, TM., Manzon, M. (2014). The institutionalization of comparative education in Asia and the Pacific: Roles and contributions of comparative education societies and the WCCES. Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
  14. Kwo, OWY., Bray, TM. (2014). Understanding the nexus between mainstream schooling and private supplementary tutoring: patterns and voices of Hong Kong secondary students. Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
  15. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2013). Behind the Façade of Fee-Free Education: Shadow Education and its Implications for Social Justice. Oxford Review of Education.
  16. Bray, M. (2013). Benefits and Tensions of Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Roles and Impact of Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Lives of Hong Kong Students. Journal of International and Comparative Education.
  17. Bray, TM., Zhan, S., Lykins, CR., Wang, D., Kwo, OWY. (2013). Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education. Economics of Education Review.
  18. Bray, M. (2013). Parallel education: The nature and effects of private supplementary tutoring in Europe. Revue Internationale d’Éducation de Sèvres, Revue Internationale d'Education de Sevres.
  19. Zhan, S., Bray, TM., Wang, D., Lykins, CR., Kwo, OWY. (2013). The effectiveness of private tutoring: students’ perceptions in comparison with mainstream schooling in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  20. Bray, TM. (2012). The global expansion of shadow education: subverting or enhancing equity, quality and development?. 比較教育研究, Comparative Education Review.
  21. Kwo, OWY., Bray, TM. (2011). Facing the shadow education system in Hong Kong. IIAS Newsletter.
  22. Bray, TM. (2010). Blurring boundaries: the growing visibility, evolving forms and complex implications of private supplementary tutoring. Orbis Scholae.
  23. Bray, M. (2010). Comparative education and international education in the history of Compare: Boundaries, overlaps and ambiguities. Compare.
  24. Bray, M., Lee, CJ. (2010). Editorial. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  25. Bray, M. (2010). Researching shadow education: Methodological challenges and directions. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  26. Crossley, M., Bray, M., Packer, S. (2009). Education in the small states of the Commonwealth: Towards and beyond global goals and targets. Round Table.
  27. Li, M., Bray, M. (2007). Cross-border flows of students for higher education: Push-pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau. Higher Education.
  28. Bray, M. (2007). Governance and free education: Directions, mechanisms and policy tensions. Prospects.
  29. Khan, F., Bray, M. (2007). Introduction to the open file. Prospects.
  30. Jiang, K., Bray, TM. (2006). Asia's Educational Edge: Current Achievements in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, and India. Comparative Education Review.
  31. Yamato, Y., Bray, TM. (2006). Economic Development and The Market Place for Education: Dynamics of The International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China. Journal of Research in International Education.
  32. Manzon, M., Bray, M. (2006). The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) and the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES): Leadership, Ambiguities and Synergies. Current Issues in Comparative Education.
  33. Bray, TM. (2006). The Control of Education: Issues and Tensions in Centralization and Decentralization. Eduactional Research (in Chinese).
  34. Bray, TM., Manzon, MIE. (2005). Comparative Education and Teacher Education in Singapore and Hong Kong: Comparisons over Time as well as Place. Comparative Education Bulletin.
  35. Manzon, M., Bray, M. (2005). Comparative Education in the Education of Teachers: Singapore and Hong Kong. Comparative Education Bulletin.
  36. Bray, M., Manzon, M. (2005). El World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES): Equilibrios, Misiones y Prospectivos. Revista Española de Educación Comparada.
  37. Bray, TM. (2004). Disciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity and Nondisciplinarity in Comparative Education. Global Education.
  38. Bray, TM. (2004). Other Fields and Ours: Academic Discourse and the Nature of Comparative Education. Comparative and International Education Review.
  39. Bray, M., Koo, R. (2004). Postcolonial patterns and paradoxes: Language and education in Hong Kong and Macao. Comparative Education.
  40. Bray, M. (2004). Sharing the burden of financing: Government and household partnerships for basic education. Economic Affairs.
  41. Mukundan, MV., Bray, M. (2004). The decentralisation of education in Kerala State, India: Rhetoric and reality. International Review of Education.
  42. Bray, TM. (2004). Tradition, Change and the Role of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies. Education in Siberia.
  43. Bray, TM. (2003). Community Initiatives in Education: Goals, Dimensions and Linkages with Governments. Compare.
  44. Bray, M. (2003). Comparative Education in the Era of Globalisation: evolution, missions and roles.
  45. Bray, M., Yamato, Y. (2003). Comparative education in a microcosm: Methodological insights from the international schools sector in Hong Kong. International Review of Education.
  46. Bray, M., Kwok, P. (2003). Demand for private supplementary tutoring: Conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong. Economics of Education Review.
  47. Bray, TM. (2003). Financing Higher Education in Asia: Patterns, Trends and the Impact of Globalisation. Global Education, 全球教育展學.
  48. Bray, M., Kwo, O. (2003). Higher Education in Small Territories: Political Transition and Development in Macau. Higher Education Policy.
  49. Bray, M. (2002). Comparative Education in the Era of Globalisation: Evolution, Missions and Roles (in Chinese). 全球化時代的比較教育:發展、使命和作用.
  50. Yamato, Y., Bray, TM. (2002). Education and Socio-Political Change: The Continued Growth and Evolution of the International Schools Sector in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  51. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2002). Higher Education in Small Territories: Political Transition and Development in Macau. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  52. Bray, M., Qin, G. (2001). Comparative education in greater China: Contexts, characteristics, contrasts and contributions. Comparative Education.
  53. Bray, TM. (2001). Comparing Education in Russia and China: An Experience of Collaboration and a Consideration of Approach. Comparative Education Bulletin.
  54. Bray, M., Borevskaya, N. (2001). Financing education in transitional societies: Lessons from Russia and China. Comparative Education.
  55. Baldacchino, G., Bray, TM. (2001). Human Resource Strategies for Small States. International Journal of Educational Development.
  56. Bray, M., Adam, K. (2001). The dialectic of the international and the national: Secondary school examinations in Maldives. International Journal of Educational Development.
  57. Tang, KC., Bray, M. (2000). Colonial Models and the Evolution of Education Systems: Centralization and Decentralization in Hong Kong and Macau.
  58. Bray, TM. (2000). Financing Higher Education in Asia: Patterns, Trends and Options. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education.
  59. Coyne, G., Bray, TM. (1999). External Aid and Education in Small States: Structural Issues, and Insights from a World Bank Assisted Project in Solomon Islands. Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
  60. Bray, TM., Gui, Q. (1998). Comparative Educational Research in the Asian Region: Implications for the Field as a Whole. Comparative Education Review, 比較教育研究.
  61. Bray, M. (1998). Financing education in developing Asia: Themes, tensions, and policies. International Journal of Educational Research.
  62. Bray, TM. (1998). National Self-determination and International Dependence: The Organisation and Control of Secondary School Examinations in the Small States of the Commonwealth. Assessment in Education.
  63. Bray, M. (1998). Regional examinations councils and geopolitical change: Commonality, diversity, and lessons from experience. International Journal of Educational Development.
  64. Bray, M. (1997). Education and colonial transition: The Hong Kong experience in comparative perspective. Comparative Education.
  65. Bray, TM. (1997). Implications of Hong Kong's Change of Sovereignty. Comparative and International Education Society Newsletter.
  66. Bray, TM. (1997). Privatization of Schooling. The Zanzibar Educational Journal.
  67. Bray, TM. (1997). Recognising the burden on households: Family and Community Financing of Primary Education in East Asia. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration.
  68. Bray, TM., Lee, WO. (1996). Education and Socio-Political Transitions in Asia: Diversity and Commonality. Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
  69. Bray, TM. (1996). Educational reform in a small state: Bhutan's new approach to primary education. International Journal of Educational Reform.
  70. Bray, M. (1996). Equity issues in local resourcing of education: Community financing of primary schools in Bhutan. International Review of Education.
  71. Bray, TM., Thomas, RM. (1995). Levels of comparison in educational studies: different insights from different literatures and the value of multilevel analyses. Harvard Educational Review.
  72. Bray, M. (1994). Centralization/decentralization and privatization/publicization: Conceptual issues and the need for more research. International Journal of Educational Research.
  73. Bray, TM., Tang, KC. (1994). Imported textbooks, non-interventionist policies and school curricula: patterns and developments in a small East-Asian territory. Curriculum and Teaching.
  74. Bray, TM., Davaa, S., Spaulding, S., Weidman, J. (1994). Transition from socialism and the financing of higher education: the case of Mongolia. Higher Education Policy.
  75. Bray, M., Lee, WO. (1993). Education, democracy and colonial transition the case of Hong Kong. International Review of Education.
  76. Shouxin, L., Bray, M. (1992). Attempting a capitalist form of financing in a socialist system: student loans in the People's Republic of China. Higher Education.
  77. Bray, M. (1991). Strategies for financing higher education: perspectives from Hong Kong and Macau. Higher Education.
  78. Bray, M. (1991). The organization and management of ministries of education in small states. Public Administration & Development.
  79. Bray, M. (1990). The economics of multiple-shift schooling: Research evidence and research gaps. International Journal of Educational Development.
  80. Bray, M., Hui, P. (1989). The implications of size for educational development in small territories: The case of Macau. International Review of Education.
  81. Bray, M. (1986). Community financing of schools in less developed countries: Mechanisms and issues. Community Development Journal.
  82. Bray, M. (1986). If UPE is the answer, what is the question? A comment on weaknesses in the rationale for universal primary education in less developed countries. International Journal of Educational Development.
  83. Bray, M. (1986). Student loans for higher education - The Hong Kong experience in international perspective. Higher Education.
  84. Bray, M. (1984). International influences on African educational development. International Journal of Educational Development.
  85. Bray, M. (1984). What crisis in educational planning? A perspective from Papua New Guinea. International Review of Education.
  86. Bray, M. (1983). Universal education in Pakistan: A perpetually elusive goal?. International Review of Education.
  87. Bray, M. (1982). The politics of free education in Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Educational Development.
  88. Bray, M. (1982). The re-emergence of private education in China. International Review of Education.

 

Conference Papers
  1. Bray, M., Zhang, W. (2016). The scale, nature and drivers of Shadow Education: shape shifting and convergence in Hong Kong and Shanghai. World Congress of Comparative Education Societies.
  2. Bray, M. (2015). Developing Scholarship in Comparative Education. The Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong (CESHK).
  3. Bray, TM. (2015). Exacerbating or Reducing Disparities? The Global Expansion of Shadow Education and Implications for the Teaching Profession. ICET World Assembly 2015: Challenging Disparities in Education, 59th Yearbook of Teacher Education (ICET2015 Yearbook).
  4. Bray, TM. (2015). Higher Education in Small States: Evolving Patterns in the Context of Globalisation. International Conference on Education in Small Island Developing States, University of Seychelles.
  5. Bray, TM. (2015). New Perspectives on Public Education and Hakwon Education: Conflicts and Alternatives’. International Conference on Hakwon Education.
  6. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2015). Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia. Annual Conference of the China Education Training Union, 中國教育培訓行業發展年會.
  7. Zhang, W., Bray, TM. (2015). Shadow Education in China: Factors underlying Demand and Policy Implications. International Conference of Worldwide Hakwon Education.
  8. Bray, M. (2013). Shadow Education: comparative perspectives on the expansion and implications of private supplementary tutoring. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences.
  9. Bray, M. (2008). The WCCES and intercultural dialogue: Historical perspectives and continuing challenges. International Review of Education.
  10. Bray, M. (2006). Private supplementary tutoring: Comparative perspectives on patterns and implications. Compare.

 

Books
  1. Menefee, T., Bray, TM. (2015). Education in the Commonwealth: Quality Education for Equitable Development. Commonwealth Secretariat.
  2. Bray, TM. (2014). Confrontando o Sistema Educacional na Sombra: Quais Politicas Governamentais para qual Tutoria Privada?. EdiPUCRS.
  3. Rao, N., Sun, J., Wong, JMS., Weekes, BS., Ip, P., Shaeffer, S., Young, ME., Bray, TM., Chen, E., Lee, D. (2014). Early Childhood Development and Cognitive Development in Developing Countries: A Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development.
  4. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2014). Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good : Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia. UNESCO and Comparative Education Research Centre, HKU.
  5. Bray, TM. (2014). 塾・受験指導の国際比較. Toshindo.
  6. Bray, TM. (2013). Un sistema educativo a la sombra: las tutorías privadas. CIDE (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económica).
  7. Bray, TM. (2012). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Arabic Translation). League of Arab States.
  8. Bray, TM. (2012). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Polish Translation). Wolters-Kluwer Poland.
  9. Bray, TM. (2012). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? [Azeri Translation]. Centre for Educational Innovations.
  10. Menefee, T., Bray, TM. (2012). Education in the Commonwealth: Towards and Beyond the Internationally Agreed Goals. Commonwealth Secretariat.
  11. Bray, TM., Lykins, CR. (2012). Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia (Vietnamese translation). Asian Development Bank & Comparative Education Research Centre, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong.
  12. Bray, TM., Lykins, CR. (2012). Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Asian Development Bank. The publisher's website is located at http://www.adb.org/publications.
  13. Bray, TM. (2011). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Sinhala Translation). UNESCO.
  14. Bray, TM. (2011). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Bangla Translation). UNESCO.
  15. Bray, TM. (2011). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Hindi Translation). UNESCO.
  16. Bray, TM. (2011). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Mongolian Translation). UNESCO.
  17. Crossley, M., Bray, TM., Packer, S. (2011). Education in Small States: Policies and Priorities. Commonwealth Secretariat.
  18. Bray, TM. (2011). L'ombre du systeme educatif: Quel soutien scolaire prive, quelles politiques publiques?. IIEP-UNESCO.
  19. Bray, TM. (2011). The Challenge of Shadow Education: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in the European Union. European Commission.
  20. Bray, TM. (2010). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Georgian Translation). Open Society Institute.
  21. Bray, TM. (2010). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Korean Translation). Korean Educational Development Institute.
  22. Bray, TM. (2010). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? (Urdu Translation). UNESCO.
  23. Bray, TM. (2010). Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas.
  24. Bray, TM. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: what government policies for what private tutoring?. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ; International Institute for Educational Planning.
  25. Masemann, V., Bray, M., Manzon, M. (2007). Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: The Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and its Members. CERC Studies in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.
  26. Bray, TM. (2006). Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Challenges, and New Paradigms (in Hungarian). Hungarian Pedagogic Society.
  27. Bray, TM., Koo, R. (2006). Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change (in Chinese). People's Education Press.
  28. Bray, TM., Bunly, S. (2005). Balancing the Books: Household Financing of Basic Education in Cambodia. Comparative Education Research Centre, HKU.
  29. Bray, TM. (2005). Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Challenges, and New Paradigms (in Japanese). Toshindo.
  30. Bray, TM. (2005). Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Challenges, and New Paradigms [Translated version, in Bulgarian]. Bureau of Educational Services.
  31. Bray, Mark. (2004). Comparative education: traditions, applications, and the role of HKU. Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong.
  32. Bray, TM., Koo, R. (2004). Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change. CERC, HKU & Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  33. Bray, TM., Ding, X., Huang, P. (2004). Reducing the Burden on the Poor: Household Costs of Basic Education in Gansu, China. CERC, HKU in association with Gansu Basic Education Project.
  34. Bray, TM. (2004). The Costs and Financing of Education: Trends and Policy Implications (Series:'Education in Developing Asia') Second Printing. Comparative Education Research Ctr, HKU; Asian Dev. Bank.
  35. Bray, TM., Ding, X., Huang, P. (2004). 減輕貧困家庭的負擔:中國甘肅省基礎教育的家庭成本. CERC, HKU, in association with Gansu Basic Education Project.
  36. Bray, TM. (2003). Adverse Effects of Private Supplementary Tutoring. UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.
  37. Bray, TM. (2003). Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Paradigms, and New Challenges. Kluwer.
  38. Bray, TM., Koo, R. (2002). Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change. Comparative Education Research Centre, Univ. of Hong Kong.
  39. Bray, TM., Butler, R., Hui, P., Kwo, OWY., Mang, EWL. (2002). Higher Education in Macau: Growth and Strategic Development. Comparative Education Research Centre, Univ. of Hong Kong.
  40. Bray, TM. (2002). The Costs and Financing of Education: Trends and Policy Implications. [Series: 'Education in Developing Asia']. Asian Development Bank & CERC, University of Hong Kong.
  41. Bray, TM. (2001). Community Partnerships in Education: Dimensions, Variations and Implications. UNESCO.
  42. Bray, TM. (2000). Double-Shift Schooling: Design and Operation for Cost-Effectiveness. The Commonwealth Secretariat / UNESCO IIEP.
  43. Bray, TM. (1999). The Private Costs of Public Schooling: Household and Community Financing of Primary Education in Cambodia. UNESCO-International Institute for Educational Planning.
  44. Bray, TM. (1999). The Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Planners. UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.
  45. Bray, TM. (1999). 教育全成本核算. Beijing Normal University Press.
  46. Bray, TM., Thomas, RM. (1998). (eds.). Asian Development Book & CERC, HKU.
  47. Bray, TM., Steward, L. (1998). Examination Systems in Small States: Comparative Perspectives on Policies, Models and Operations. The Commonwealth Secretariat.
  48. Bray, TM. (1996). Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. The World Bank.
  49. Bray, M. (1996). Counting the full cost: parental and community financing of education in East Asia. Counting the full cost: parental and community financing of education in East Asia.
  50. Bray, TM. (1996). Decentralization of Education: Community Financing. The World Bank.
  51. Bray, M. (1996). Decentralization of education: community financing. Decentralization of education: community financing.
  52. Bray, TM. (1996). Privatisation of Secondary Education: Issues and Policy Implications. UNESCO.
  53. Bray, Mark. (1993). The Economics and financing of education: Hong Kong and comparative perspectives. Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.
  54. Bray, Mark. (1990). Educational administration in Hong Kong: personnel and schools. Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.

 

Books Edited
  1. Bary, TM., Kwo, OWY., Jokic, B. (2015). Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures. Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong & Springer.
  2. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, M. (2014). Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd Ed.). Springer and Comparative Education Research Centre, HKU.
  3. Bray, TM., Mazawi, AE., Sultana, RG. (2013). Private tutoring across the Mediterranean: power dynamics and implications for learning and equity. Sense Publishers.
  4. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, M. (2011). Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (Japanese Translation). Sophia University Press (上智大学出版).
  5. Bray, TM., Varghese, NV. (2011). Directions in Educational Planning: International Experiences and Perspectives. UNESCO & International Institute for Educational Planning.
  6. Martin, M., Bray, TM. (2011). Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization. Unesco Pub. : International Institute for Educational Planning.
  7. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, M. (2010). Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (Chinese Translation). 北京大学出版社.
  8. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, MB. (2007). Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods. Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong, and Springer.

 

Book Chapters
  1. Zhang, W., Bray, TM. (2016). Shadow Education: The Rise and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring. Shadow Education: The Rise and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring. In Guo, S & Guo, Y (Eds.), Spotlight on China: Changes in Education under China’s Market Economy, p. 85-99. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016
  2. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2015). Designing and Implementing Mixed Approaches to Shadow Education Research: Experiences and Lessons in Hong Kong. Designing and Implementing Mixed Approaches to Shadow Education Research: Experiences and Lessons in Hong Kong. In Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora & Jokic, Boris (Eds.), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures, p. 149-178. Hong Kong, China : Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong ; Dordrecht : Springer, 2015
  3. Bray, TM. (2015). Expanding within and beyond HKU: 1996-2001. Expanding within and beyond HKU: 1996-2001. In Manzon, M (Ed.), Changing Times, Changing Territories: Reflections on CERC and the Field of Comparative Education, p. 27-38. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong, 2015
  4. Bray, TM. (2015). International and Comparative Education: Boundaries, Ambiguities and Synergies. International and Comparative Education: Boundaries, Ambiguities and Synergies. In Hayden, M; Jack, L & Thompson, J (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Research in International Education (2nd ed.), p. 122-129. London: SAGE, 2015
  5. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY., Jokic, B. (2015). Introduction. Introduction. In Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora & Jokic, Boris (Eds.), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures, p. 3-19. Hong Kong, China : Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong ; Dordrecht : Springer, 2015
  6. Bray, TM. (2015). New Directions with UNESCO and More: 2010 - present. New Directions with UNESCO and More: 2010 - present. In Manzon, M (Ed.), Changing Times, Changing Territories: Reflections on CERC and the Field of Comparative Education, p. 63-75. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 2015
  7. Bray, TM., Kwo, OWY. (2015). Organisational and Cross-Cultural Issues: Learning from Research Approaches. Organisational and Cross-Cultural Issues: Learning from Research Approaches. In Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora & Jokic, Boris (Eds.), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures, p. 261-288. Hong Kong, China : Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong ; Dordrecht : Springer, 2015
  8. Menefee, T., Bray, TM. (2015). Quality and Equity in Education. Quality and Equity in Education. In Katie Silvester (Ed.), Commonwealth Education Partnerships, 2015/16, p. 27-29. London: Nexus Strategic Partnerships for the Commonwealth Secretariat, 2015
  9. Bray, TM., Zhang, W., Kobakhidze, MN., Liu, J. (2015). Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring in Cambodia: Contexts, Instruments and Approaches. Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring in Cambodia: Contexts, Instruments and Approaches. In Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora & Jokic, Boris (Eds.), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures, p. 219-244. Hong Kong, China : Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong ; Dordrecht : Springer, 2015
  10. Bray, TM. (2015). Symbiosis which Complements, or Parasitism which Weakens? International Perspectives on Relationships between Shadow Education and Schooling. Symbiosis which Complements, or Parasitism which Weakens? International Perspectives on Relationships between Shadow Education and Schooling. In Kodakos, Anastassios & Kalavasis, Fragiskos (Eds.), Shadow Education System: Border Management Models of the School with the Structures of Education Market, p. 109-141. Athens: Diadrasi, 2015
  11. Bray, TM., Kobakhidze, MN. (2014). The Global Spread of Shadow Education: Supporting or Undermining Qualities of Education?. The Global Spread of Shadow Education: Supporting or Undermining Qualities of Education?. In Napier, DB (Ed.), Qualities of Education in a Globalised World, p. 185-200. Rotterdam: Boston: Sense Publishers, 2014
  12. Bray, TM. (2014). Understanding International and Comparative Education Research. Understanding International and Comparative Education Research. In Reid, AD., Hart, EP & Peters, MA (Eds.), A Companion to Research in Education, p. 333-339. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014
  13. Bray, TM. (2013). Benefícios e tensões da educação na sombra: perspetivas comparativas sobre o papel e o impacto das explicações na vida dos estudantes de Hong Kong. Benefícios e tensões da educação na sombra: perspetivas comparativas sobre o papel e o impacto das explicações na vida dos estudantes de Hong Kong. In Xplika Internacional Panorâmica sobre o Mercado das Explicações, p. 117-138. Aveiro: University of Aveiro, 2013
  14. Mazawi, AE., Sultana, RG., Bray, TM. (2013). Beyond Shadows: Equity, Diversity, and Private Tutoring. Beyond Shadows: Equity, Diversity, and Private Tutoring. In Bray, M., Mazawi, AE & Sultana, RG (Eds.), Private tutoring across the Mediterranean: power dynamics and implications for learning and equity, p. 205-216. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013
  15. Martin, M., Bray, TM. (2013). Higher Education in Small States. Higher Education in Small States. In Adamson, B., Nixon, J & Su, F (Eds.), The Reorientation of Higher Education: Challenging the East-West Dichotomy, p. 50-75. Hong Kong: Springer & Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong, 2013
  16. Bray, TM., Mazawi, AE., Sultana, RG. (2013). Introduction: Situating Private Tutoring. Introduction: Situating Private Tutoring. In Bray, M., Mazawi, AE & Sultana, RG (Eds.), Private tutoring across the Mediterranean: power dynamics and implications for learning and equity, p. 1-10. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013
  17. Zhang, W., Bray, TM. (2013). Researching Supplementary Education: Plans, Realities, and Lessons from Fieldwork in China. Researching Supplementary Education: Plans, Realities, and Lessons from Fieldwork in China. In Aurini, J., Davies, S & Dierkes, J (Eds.), Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education, p. 67-94. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2013
  18. Bray, TM. (2013). Shadow Education: The Rise of Private Tutoring and Associated Corruption Risks. Shadow Education: The Rise of Private Tutoring and Associated Corruption Risks. In Transparency International (Eds.), Global Corruption Report: Education, p. 83-87. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2013
  19. Nordtveit, BH., Bray, TM. (2012). Asia, colonialism and education in. Asia, colonialism and education in. In Banks, JA (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity in education, v. 1, p. 134-137. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2012
  20. Bray, TM. (2011). Four milestones in the work of IIEP. Four milestones in the work of IIEP. In Bray, M and Varghese, NV (Eds.), Directions in educational planning : international experiences and perspectives, p. 35-62. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 2011
  21. Bray, TM., Varghese, NV. (2011). Learning from the past while planning for the future. Learning from the past while planning for the future. In Bray, M and Varghese, NV (Eds.), Directions in educational planning : international experiences and prespectives, p. 299-310. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 2011
  22. Crossley, M., Bray, TM., Packer, S., Sprague, T. (2011). Revisiting Educational Policies and Priorities in Commonwealth Small States. Revisiting Educational Policies and Priorities in Commonwealth Small States. In Jones-Parry, R & Roberston, A (Eds.), Commonwealth education partnerships 2011/12, p. 15-18. Cambridge: Nexus Strategic Partnerships, 2011
  23. Bray, TM. (2011). Seizing Opportunities and Balancing Constraints. Seizing Opportunities and Balancing Constraints. In Martin, M & Bray, M (Eds.), Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization, p. 267-279. Paris: Unesco Pub. and International Institute for Educational Planning, 2011
  24. Bray, TM. (2011). The Small-States Paradigm and its Evolution. The Small-States Paradigm and its Evolution. In Martin, M & Bray, M (Eds.), Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization, p. 37-72. Paris: Unesco Pub. and International Institute for Educational Planning, 2011
  25. Bray, TM. (2010). Comparative education: societies and associations. Comparative education: societies and associations. In Peterson, P .. (Eds.)(et al), International encyclopedia of education, p. 266-271. Oxford: Elsevier, 2010
  26. Hite, S., Bray, TM. (2010). International organizations in education: UNESCO’s international institute for educational planning. International organizations in education: UNESCO’s international institute for educational planning. In Peterson, P .. (Eds.)(et al) (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education, p. 688-693. Oxford: Elsevier, 2010
  27. Bray, TM., Yamato, Y. (2010). La educación comparada en un microcosmo: percepciones Metodológicas desde el sector de las escuelas internacionales de Hong Kong. La educación comparada en un microcosmo: percepciones Metodológicas desde el sector de las escuelas internacionales de Hong Kong. In Bray, Mark (Eds.), Educación comparada: tradiciones, nuevos retos y nuevos paradigmas, p. 55-77. Mexico City: Planea, 2010
  28. Bray, TM. (2010). Tradicion, Cambio y el Papel del Consejo Mundial de las Sociedades de Educacion Comparada. Tradicion, Cambio y el papel del consejo mundial de las Sociedades de Educacion Comparada. In Bray, Mark (Ed.), Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas, p. 7-19. Madrid: Editorial Planea, 2010
  29. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, MB. (2007). Comparative Education Research: Different Models, Different Emphases, Different Insights. Comparative Education Research: Different Models, Different Emphases, Different Insights. In Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, p. 363-379. Hong Kong and Dordrecht : CERC and Springer, 2007
  30. Manzon, M., Bray, M. (2007). Comparing the Comparers: Patterns, Themes and Interpretations. Comparing the Comparers: Patterns, Themes and Interpretations. In Masemann, V, Bray, M, Manzon, M (Eds.), Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: The Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and its Members, p. 336-363. Hong Kong and Dordrecht: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong and Springer, 2007
  31. Manzon, M., Bray, M. (2007). Completing the Family Picture. Completing the Family Picture. In Masemann, V, Bray, M, Manzon, M (Eds.), Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: The Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and its Members, p. 316-335. Hong Kong and Dordrecht: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong and Springer, 2007
  32. Bray, TM., Adamson, B., Mason, MB. (2007). Introduction to Comparative Education Research. Introduction to Comparative Education Research. In Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, p. 1-11. Hong Kong and Dordrecht: CERC and Springer, 2007
  33. Bray, TM., Tang, K.C. (2006). Building and Diversifying Education Systems: Evolving Patterns and Contrasting Trends in Hong Kong and Macau. Building and Diversifying Education Systems: Evolving Patterns and Contrasting Trends in Hong Kong and Macau. In Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences And Conceptual Contributions, p. 71-95. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006
  34. Bray, TM. (2006). Comparative Education in the Era of Globalisation: Evaluation, Missions and Roles. Comparative Education in the Era of Globalisation: Evaluation, Missions and Roles. In Globalization: Educational Research, Change and Reform, p. 51-71. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2006
  35. Bray, TM. (2005). The Evolving Field of Comparative Education: Orientations, Linkages, and Conceptual Challenges. The Evolving Field of Comparative Education: Orientations, Linkages, and Conceptual Challenges. In Comparative Education in Asia, p. 44-70. Bandung, Indonesia: Indonesia University of Education, 2004
  36. Bray, TM. (2004). Comparative Education and Allied Fields: A Perspective from the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES). Comparative Education and Allied Fields: A Perspective from the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES). In Global Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education, p. 1-6. Armidale, Australia: Australian & NZ Comparative & Intl' Edu Society, 2005
  37. Bray, TM. (2004). Continuity and Change in Education. Continuity and Change in Education. In Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao:Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, p. 251-269. Hong Kong & Boston, USA: CERC, HKU & Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004
  38. Bray, TM., Koo, R. (2004). Language and Education. Language and Education. In Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao:Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, p. 141-158. Hong Kong & Boston, USA: CERC, HKU & Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004
  39. Bray, TM. (2004). Making a Difference in Education through Community Participation. Making a Difference in Education through Community Participation. In Impact: Making a Difference, p. 20-26. Karachi, Pakistan: Aga Khan University, Institute of Education, 2004
  40. Bray, TM. (2004). Methodology and Focus in Comparative Education. Methodology and Focus in Comparative Education. In Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao:Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, p. 237-250. Hong Kong and Boston, USA: CERC, HKU & Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004
  41. Bray, TM. (2003). Financing Education in Asian and Pacific Countries. Financing Education in Asian and Pacific Countries. In International Handbook of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region, p. 1047-1062. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003
  42. Bray, TM. (2002). Education and Community in Africa: Looking Back to 1976. Education and Community in Africa: Looking Back to 1976. In Encounters with the Centre of African Studies: Celebrating 40 Years of African Studies in Edinburgh, p. 38-48. Edinburgh, UK: Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 2002
  43. Bray, TM. (2002). Government and Household Financing of Education: Finding Appropriate Balances. Government and Household Financing of Education: Finding Appropriate Balances. In Raising Adequate Resources for Education, p. 605-631. Beijing, China: People's Education Press, 2003
  44. Bray, TM., Lee, WO. (2001). Education and Political Transition in East Asia: Diversity and Commonality. Education and Political Transition in East Asia: Diversity and Commonality. In Education and Political Transition: Themes and Experiences in East Asia, p. 1-18. Hong Kong: CERC, The University of Hong Kong, 2001
  45. Bray, TM. (2001). Financing Basic Education: Issues and Challenges. Financing Basic Education: Issues and Challenges. In Task Force on Basic Education in China: Bulletin, v. 6, p. 1pp. Beijing, China: UNESCO, 2000
  46. Bray, TM. (2001). Higher Education and Colonial Transition in Macau: Market Forces and State Intervention in a Small Society. Higher Education and Colonial Transition in Macau: Market Forces and State Intervention in a Small Society. In Education and Political Transition: Themes and Experiences in East Asia, p. 139-161. Hong Kong: CERC, The University of Hong Kong, 2001
  47. Bray, TM. (2000). Educational Policies and Policy-making in Hong Kong. Educational Policies and Policy-making in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong's Young Children: Our Past, Their Future, p. 309-341. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, HKU, 1999
  48. Bray, TM. (2000). Examination Systems in Small States: Meeting National Needs in a Global Environment. Examination Systems in Small States: Meeting National Needs in a Global Environment. In Education in the Commonwealth, p. 125-129. London, UK: Kensington Publications, 2001
  49. Bray, TM. (2000). Globalisation, Education and the Colonial Transition of Two Remnants of Empire: A Comparative Analysis of Hong Kong and Macau. Globalisation, Education and the Colonial Transition of Two Remnants of Empire: A Comparative Analysis of Hong Kong and Macau. In Globalisation, Educational Transformation and Societies in Transition, p. 175-194. Oxford, UK: Symposium Books, 2000
  50. Bray, TM. (1999). Community Financing of Education: Cultural Variations and Policy Dilemmas in Less Developed Countries. Community Financing of Education: Cultural Variations and Policy Dilemmas in Less Developed Countries. In Education, Cultures, and Economics: Dilemmas for Development, p. 183-202. New York, USA: Falmer Press, 1999
  51. Bray, TM. (1999). Continuity and Change in Education. Continuity and Change in Education. In Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, p. 225-246. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, HKU, 1999
  52. Bray, TM. (1999). Control of Education: Issues and Tensions in Centralization and Decentralization. Robert F. Arnove & Carlos Alberto Torres (eds.). Control of Education: Issues and Tensions in Centralization and Decentralization Robert F Arnove & Carlos Alberto Torres (eds). In Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local, p. 207-232. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999
  53. Bray, TM. (1999). Education and Political Transition in Hong Kong and Macau: A Comparative Analysis. Ramos, R., Dinis, J.R., Wilson, R. & Yuan, D.Y. (eds.). Education and Political Transition in Hong Kong and Macau: A Comparative Analysis Ramos, R, Dinis, JR, Wilson, R & Yuan, DY (eds). In Macau and its Neighbors toward the 21st Century, p. 199-209. Macau: University of Macau & Macau Foundation, 1998
  54. Bray, TM. (1998). Privatization of Secondary Education: Issues and Policy Implications. Privatization of Secondary Education: Issues and Policy Implications. In Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and Prospects, p. 109-133. Paris, France: UNESCO, 1998
  55. Bray, TM. (1997). Implications for Conceptual Understanding. In: Bray, M. and Steward, L. (eds.). Implications for Conceptual Understanding In: Bray, M and Steward, L (eds). In Examination Systems in Small States: Comparative Perspectives on Policies, Models and Operations, p. 218-235. London, UK: The Commonwealth Secretariat, 1998
  56. Bray, TM. (1997). Implications for Policy and Practice. In: Bray, M. and Steward, L. (eds.). Implications for Policy and Practice In: Bray, M and Steward, L (eds). In Examination Systems in Small States: Comparative Perspective on Policies, Models and Operations, p. 236-250. London, UK: The Commonwealth Secretariat, 1998
  57. Bray, TM. (1997). Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands. In G.A. Postiglione and G.C.L. Mak (eds.). Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands In GA Postiglione and GCL Mak (eds). In Asian Higher Education: An International Handbook and Reference Guide, p. 245-263. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 1997
  58. Bray, TM. (1997). Privatisation of Schooling: Strategies and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries. Privatisation of Schooling: Strategies and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries. In In: Aggarwal Y. and Premi K. (eds.), Reforming School Education: Issues in Policy Planning and Implementations, p. 275-299. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1998
  59. Bray, TM. (1996). Community Financing of Education: Rationales, Mechanisms and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries. In: Colclough, C. (ed.). Community Financing of Education: Rationales, Mechanisms and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries In: Colclough, C (ed). In Marketizing Education and Health in Developing Countries: Miracle or Mirage?, p. 185-204. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997
  60. Bray, TM. (1996). Education and Decolonization: Comparative Perspectives on Change and Continuity. In: Cummings, W.K. & McGinn, N.F. (eds.). Education and Decolonization: Comparative Perspectives on Change and Continuity In: Cummings, WK & McGinn, NF (eds). In International Handbook of Education and Development: Preparing Schools, Students and Nations for the Twenty-First Century, p. 103-118. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1997
  61. Bray, TM. (1996). Education and the Labour Market. In: Postiglione, G.A. & Lee, W.O. (eds.). Education and the Labour Market In: Postiglione, GA & Lee, WO (eds). In Schooling in Hong Kong: Organization, Teaching and Social Context, p. 43-63. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997
  62. Bray, TM., Lee, WO. (1996). Education, Democracy and Colonial Transition: The Case of Hong Kong. In: Ryba, R. (ed.). Education, Democracy and Colonial Transition: The Case of Hong Kong In: Ryba, R (ed). In Education, Democracy and Development: An International Perspective, p. 79-98. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer, 1997
  63. Bray, TM. (1995). Community financing of education. Community financing of education. In In: Carnoy M. (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Economics of Education, Oxford: Pergamon Press, p. 430-433. 1995
  64. Tang, KC., Bray, TM. (1995). Curriculum diversity and the influence of imported textbooks: patterns and developments in secondary school mathematics (in Chinese). Curriculum diversity and the influence of imported textbooks: patterns and developments in secondary school mathematics (in Chinese). In In: Koo R. and Ma H.T. (eds.), Macau Education: Choice and Freedom, Macau Foundation, p. 70-86. 1995
  65. Lee, WO., Bray, TM. (1995). Education: evolving patterns and challenges. Education: evolving patterns and challenges. In In: Cheng J.Y.S. and Lo S.S.H. (eds.), From Colony to SAR: Hong Kong's Challenges Ahead, Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, p. 357-378. 1995
  66. Almeida, C., Bray, TM. (1995). Macau. Macau. In In: Huse9n T. and Postlethwaite N.T. (eds.), The International Encyclopedia of National Systems of Education, p. 583-589. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1994
  67. Bray, TM. (1994). Educational policies and policy-making in Hong Kong: processes, priorities and products. Educational policies and policy-making in Hong Kong: processes, priorities and products. In In: Tsoi M. (ed.), Report on Hong Kong Children, Hong Kong, Centre of Asian Studies, The University of Hong K, p. 110-125. 1995
  68. Crawford, NB., Bray, TM. (1994). Special education in Hong Kong. Special education in Hong Kong. In In: Mazurek K. and Winzer M. (eds.), Comparative Studies in Special Education, Washington, D.C., Gallaudet University Press, p. 286-302. 1994
  69. Bray, TM. (1994). The quality of education in private schools: historical patterns and the impact of recent policies. The quality of education in private schools: historical patterns and the impact of recent policies. In In: Siu P.K. and Tam P.T.K. (eds.), Quality in Education: Insight from Different Perspectives, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Educational Research Association, p. 183-198. 1995

 

Professional Community Services
Knowledge Exchange Activities
  1. 2012-08-30 to 2013-06-30: 2012/13 KE Impact Project Funding: KE-IP-2012/13-27: Policy Forum: Government Policies for Shadow Education – Common Concerns in Diverse Contexts (HK$100,000), KE Project Grant
  2. 2012-07-01 to 2013-06-30: Faculty Knowledge Exchange Award 2012 (Faculty of Education) for “Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?”, KE Award/Prize on KE Achievement
  3. 2010-12-02 to 2011-06-30: 2010/11 KE Impact Project Funding: KE-IP-2010/11-13: Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring? (HK$100,000), KE Project Grant

 

Invited Lectures & Keynote Speeches
  1. 2016-08-01: The Future of Comparative EducationWorld Congress of Comparative Education Societies (Beijing)
  2. 2016-07-01: ‘The Global Expansion of Shadow Education and Implications for the Teaching Profession’.Forum on Basic Education
  3. 2015-11-01: What is private tuition really doing to – or for – education?Invited Lecture, HEAD Foundation, Singapore
  4. 2015-09-01: ‘Educational Planning: Looking back for Looking Forward’2015 National Education Conference: Celebrating 40 Years of PNG Educational Performance – Past, Present and Future Prospects and Challenges
  5. 2015-07-01: ‘Higher Education in Small States: Evolving Patterns in the Context of Globalisation’International Conference on Small Island Developing States, University of Seychelles
  6. 2015-06-01: : ‘Exacerbating or Reducing Disparities? The Global Expansion of Shadow Education and Implications for the Teaching Profession’Challenging Disparities in Education, 59th World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching, Naruto University of Education, Japan
  7. 2015-06-01: ‘Education in the Commonwealth: Quality Education for Equitable Development’19th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers, Nassau, Bahamas, 22-26 June
  8. 2015-04-01: : ‘Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia’10th Annual Conference of the China Education Training Union, Zhengzhou
  9. 2015-04-01: New Perspectives on Public Education and Hakwon Education: Conflicts and Alternatives’First International Conference on Hakwon Education, Korean Association of Hakwon Education, Seoul
  10. 2015-02-01: ‘Developing Scholarship in Comparative Education’Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong (CESHK)
  11. 2014-05-01: Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Expansion and Implications of Private Supplementary TutoringShanghai Normal University
  12. 2012-10-01: The Global Expansion of Shadow Education: Subverting or Enhancing Equity, Quality and Development?Fourth Worldwide Forum of Comparative Education
  13. 2012-05-01: Financing Education: Role of Government and Household ExpenditureTowards EFA 2015 and Beyond – Shaping a New Vision of Education
  14. 2012-02-01: Approaches and Methods in Comparative Education: Selecting Units for AnalysisThird Annual Conference of the Gulf Comparative Education Society (GCES)
  15. 2012-02-01: Financing Basic Education: International Patterns and ExperiencesConference on Development Policy Options with Special Reference to Education and Health in Myanmar
  16. 2011-10-01: The Challenge of Shadow Education: Expansion and Implications of Private Supplementary TutoringAsian Network of Training and Research Institutions in Educational Planning (ANTRIEP)
  17. 2010-11-01: 'Managing Diversity and Assuring Quality: Revisiting the 2001 Review of Higher Education in Macao' [Keynote Address]Conference on Quality Assurance in Higher Education
  18. 2010-10-01: ‘A Comparative Perspective on Comparative Education’ [Keynote Address]Biennial conference of the Chinese Comparative Education Society
  19. 2010-09-01: ‘Blurring Boundaries: The Growing Visibility, Evolving Forms and Complex Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring’ [Keynote Address]Biennial Conference of the Czech Comparative Education Society
  20. 2010-04-01: Higher Education in Small States: Opportunities and ChallengesCaribbean Conference on Higher Education
  21. 2009-11-01: ‘Managing Diversity and Assuring Quality: Revisiting the 2001 Review of Higher Education in Macao'Conference on 'Quality Assurance in Higher Education'
  22. 2005-08-22: Keynote speech: 'The Evolving Field of Comparative Education: Scholarly Societies and Global Collaboration'Second Worldwide Forum on Comparative Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, 22 August 2005
  23. 2005-05-30: Comparative Education in Asia: Features, Challenges and ContributionsKeynote speech: 5th Biennial Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Asia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, May 30 - 31, 2005
  24. 2004-11-20: Professional Bodies in Comparative Education: A Perspective from the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES)Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the China Comparative Education Society, Nov 20 - 22, 2004
  25. 2002-03-12: Education in Small States: Concepts, Challenges and StrategiesDistinguished Public Lecture

 

Editorship
  1. 2016: International Advisory Board, Directions: Journal of Educational Studies
  2. 2015: Edited book (as editor), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures
  3. 2014 - 2015: Advisory Board, Comparative Education Review
  4. 2013: Private Tutoring across the Mediterranean: Power Dynamics, and Implications for Learning and Equity
  5. 2011: Edited book (as editor), Directions in Educational Planning: International Experiences and Perspectives
  6. 2011 - 2016: Editorial Board, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education
  7. 2011 - 2013: International Advisory Board, 'Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education'
  8. 2011 - 2016: International Advisory Board, Comparative Education
  9. 2011 - 2013: International Advisory Board, International Journal of Lifelong Education
  10. 2011 - 2016: International Editorial Board, International Journal of Educational Development
  11. 2011: Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization
  12. 2010: Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas
  13. 2009, 2011 - 2012: Member of Editorial Board, Frontiers of Education in China
  14. 2009, 2012 - 2014, 2016: Member of International Advisory Board, Peabody Journal of Education
  15. 2009: Members of Editorial Board, Educational Administration Research
  16. 2009, 2015 - 2016: Members of International Advisory Board, Journal of Applied Research in Education
  17. 2009: Members of International Advisory Council, Revista Española de Educación Comparada
  18. 2007: Editor, Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods
  19. 2005: Edited book (as editor), Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Challenges, and New Paradigms [Translated version, in Bulgarian]
  20. 2005, 2011 - 2013, 2015: Editorial Board, KEDI Journal of Educational Policy
  21. 2005: International Editorial Board, Comparative and International Education Review
  22. 2004: Comité Scientifique, Politiques d' Éducation et de Formation: Analyses et Comparaisons Internationales
  23. 2004: Edited book (as editor), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change
  24. 2004 - 2005: Editorial Advisor, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal
  25. 2004: Editorial Advisor, In Focus: Journal of Comparative, International & Intercultural Education
  26. 2004 - 2005: Editorial Advisory Board, International Journal of Educational Reform
  27. 2004 - 2005: Editorial Board, Perspectives in Education
  28. 2004 - 2005: Editorial Board, Policy Futures in Education
  29. 2004 - 2005, 2011 - 2015: International Advisory Board, Asia Pacific Journal of Education
  30. 2004 - 2005, 2012: International Advisory Board, Current Issues in Comparative Education
  31. 2004 - 2005: International Panel of Editorial Consultants, World Studies in Education
  32. 2003: Edited book (as editor), Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Paradigms, and New Challenges
  33. 2003 - 2004: International Advisory Board, Journal of Southeast Asian Education
  34. 2002, 2011, 2013 - 2016: Advisory Editor, Asia Pacific Education Review
  35. 2002: Edited book (as editor), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change
  36. 2002 - 2003: International Advisory Board, Educational Review
  37. 2002, 2004 - 2005, 2011 - 2013: International Advisory Board, Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies
  38. 2001: (Eds.), Education and Political Transition: Themes and Experiences in East Asia
  39. 2001 - 2002, 2004 - 2005: Associate Editor, International Studies in Educational Administration
  40. 2000, 2011 - 2016: Editorial Board, International Review of Education
  41. 1999: (eds.), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change
  42. 1998: (eds.), Financing of Education in Indonesia
  43. 1998: Editors, Examination Systems in Small States: Comparative Perspectives on Policies, Models and Operations
  44. 1998: Member of Editorial Board, Forum of Education
  45. 1997: (Guest Editors), Education and Political Transition: Implications of Hong Kong's Change of Sovereignty. Special Issue of Comparative Education
  46. 1996: (Guest Editors), Education and Social Political Transitions in Asia. Special Issue of Asia Pacific Journal of Education
  47. since Nov 2007: Comité Scientifique, Education Comparee
  48. since Jan 2010: Edidorial Committee, Revista Sudamericana de Educacion, Universidad y Sociedad: Educacion Comparada e Internacional
  49. since Jan 2010: Editorial Advisory Board, Comparative Education Review
  50. since May 2009: Editorial Board, Professional Education in Russia and Abroad
  51. since Sep 2011: Editorial Board, Siberian Pedagogical Journal

 

Community Service
  1. 2014-03-01 to 2015-03-01: Vice President, Comparative & International Education Society
  2. 2012-07-01 to 2015-07-01: Board of Directors, Comparative Education Society of Asia
  3. 2012-05-01 to 2015-05-01: UNESCO Liaison Representative, World Council of Comparative Education Societies
  4. 2004-10-01 to 2007-09-01: President, World Council of Comparative Education Societies
  5. 2000-09-01 to 2005-05-01: Secretary-General, World Council of Comparative Education Societies
  6. 1988-01-01 to 2000-01-01: President, Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong

 

Others
Teaching List, Current
  1. 2016-17 Semester 1, MEDD6014, 1K, Methods of research and enquiry
  2. 2016-17 Semester 1, MEDD6097, 1A, Themes and approaches in the field of comparative education
  3. 2015-16 Semester 1, MEDD6014, 1K, Methods of research and enquiry
  4. 2015-16 Semester 1, MEDD6097, 1A, Themes and approaches in the field of comparative education
  5. 2014 S1, MEDD6014, 1K, Methods of research and enquiry
  6. 2014 S1, MEDD6097, 1A, Themes and approaches in the field of comparative education
  7. 2013 S1, MEDD6014, 1K, Methods of research and enquiry
  8. 2013 S1, MEDD6097, 1A, Themes and approaches in the field of comparative education

 

Supervision of Research Postgraduate Students
  1. 2016 Phd Ghosh Pubali, Shadow Education
  2. 2015 Phd Feng Siyuan, Shadow Education (Private Supplementary Tutoring)
  3. 2013 Phd Liu Junyan, Comparative Education, Educational Internationalization
  4. 2012 Phd Sium Mengesha Tedros, Comparative Education (The Challenges of Ensuring Equitable Access to Quality Education: Policy and Practice)
  5. 2012 Phd Brehm William Charles, Enacting Educational Spaces: A Landscape Portrait of Privatization in Cambodia, Education Policy and Planning
  6. 2012 Phd Mahmud Rafsan, Shadow education: Determinants and implications of private supplementary tutoring in English at secondary level in Bangladesh, Private Supplementary Tutoring in English: Determinants and Implications of Supply and Demand in Secondary Education in Bangladesh
  7. 2012 Phd Kobakhidze Magda, Teachers as tutors: Shadow education market dynamics in Georgia, Policy, Administration and Social Sciences Education
  8. 2011 Phd Li Wenjian, Shadow Education(Private Supplementary Tutoring)
  9. 2011 Phd Yung Wai Ho, Learning English as a Second Language in Hong Kong: Understanding the Selves of Senior Secondary Students in Shadow Education, Shadow Education
  10. 2011 Phd Menefee III James Warren, The Crisis Machine: Moral Panic, Alliances, and Agenda-Setting in an Agricultural Non-Formal Education Program, Civil Society, Shadow Education, Disaster Mitigation and Relief
  11. 2010 Phd Zhang Wei, Private Supplementary Tutoring Received by Grade 9 Students in Chongqing, China: Determinants of Demand, and Policy Implications, Educational Policy & Administration
  12. 2005 Phd Manzon Maria Iluminada Esquivel, Comparative Education: The Construction of a Field, Comparative Education
  13. 2003 Phd Maeda Mitsuko, Power Relations among Actors in Development Cooperation: Patterns, Models, and the Example of a Japanese Assisted Teacher Training Project in Cambodia, Comparative Education
  14. 2001 Phd Li Mei, Cross-border Higher Education of Mainland Chinese Students: Hong Kong and Macao in a Globalizing Market, Educational Policy and Comparative Education
  15. 1999 Phd Lau Kai Chi Anthony, Socio-political Forces and Intended, Resourced and Implemented Curricula: Chinese Music in Hong Kong and Taipei Junior Secondary Schools, Comparative Education

 

HKU Committee Appointments
  1. 2013-09-01 to 2015-08-31: Academic Reviews, Advisory Group on, Nine professors appointed by the Senate for two years at a time, with membership staggered at one yearly intervals, Senate
  2. 2012-07-01 to Present: Faculty of Education, Board of the, The teachers who are members of the Faculty and who are full-time employees of the University
  3. 2011-09-01 to 2013-08-31: Academic Reviews, Advisory Group on, Nine professors appointed by the Senate for two years at a time, with membership staggered at one yearly intervals
  4. 2011-07-01 to 2012-06-30: Disciplinary Committee, Senate Panel, Senate
  5. 2010-10-01 to 2013-09-30: Faculty of Education, Board of the, Chairman
  6. 2010-10-01 to 2013-09-30: Senate, Chairman of each Board of the Faculty
  7. 2005-11-11 to 2006-02-28: Senior Management Team and the Deans, Committee of the, The Deans of each Faculty
  8. 2005-09-01 to 2006-02-28: Court Life Membership Committee, The Dean of each Faculty
  9. 2005-09-01 to 2006-02-28: Faculty of Education, Board of the, Dean
  10. 2005-09-01 to 2006-02-28: Senate, Dean of each Faculty
  11. 2005-07-01 to 2006-02-28: Disciplinary Committee, Senate Panel, Senate
  12. 2005-05-01 to 2006-02-28: Institute of Human Performance, Board of Studies of the, Dean of a Faculty nominated by the Vice-Chancellor and appointed for two years at a time, Senate
  13. 2004-08-03 to 2006-02-28: Enquiry into Possible Good Cause, Committee of, A panel of 12 members of the Senate who are teachers, appointed by the Senate for 2 years at a time, Senate
  14. 2004-07-27 to 2005-06-30: Disciplinary Committee, Senate Panel, Senate
  15. 2004-07-01 to 2006-08-04: Conditions of Service Committee, Two members of the University, appointed by the Human Resource Policy Committee
  16. 2003-05-27 to 2005-04-30: Institute of Human Performance, Board of Studies of the, Dean of a Faculty nominated by the Vice-Chancellor and appointed for two years at a time, Senate
  17. 2002-09-01 to 2003-10-31: Council, Dean of each Faculty
  18. 2002-09-01 to 2004-01-27: Selection of Heads of Teaching Departments, Committee for the, The Dean of the relevant Faculty
  19. 2002-09-01 to 2005-05-21: Appointment of Professors and Readers, Board for the, Dean of each Faculty
  20. 2002-09-01 to 2005-08-31: Court Life Membership Committee, The Dean of each Faculty
  21. 2002-09-01 to 2005-08-31: Faculty of Education, Board of the, Dean
  22. 2002-09-01 to 2005-08-31: General Purposes Committee, The Dean of each Faculty
  23. 2002-09-01 to 2005-08-31: Senate, Dean of each Faculty
  24. 2002-09-01 to 2005-08-31: Simon K.Y. Lee Research Fund in Linguistics Speech and Hearing Sciences Committee of Management, Dean, Faculty of Education or nominee
  25. 2002-09-01 to 2006-02-28: Committees Review Committee, The Dean of each Faculty
  26. 2002-07-01 to 2003-06-30: Disciplinary Committee, Senate Panel, Senate
  27. 2001-01-01 to 2001-12-31: Selection of Senior Teachers, Committee for the, One teacher of the relevant Faculty Board, elected by the Board, for a period of twelve months
  28. 2000-09-26 to 2002-08-31: Board of Examination for Graduate Studies, Chairman of each Faculty Higher Degrees Committee, Education Faculty Board
  29. 2000-01-01 to 2000-12-31: Selection of Senior Teachers, Committee for the, One teacher of the relevant Faculty Board, elected by the Board, for a period of twelve months, Education Faculty Board
  30. 1999-07-01 to 2003-10-31: Senate, Professors
  31. 1999-07-01 to 2005-06-21: Appointment of Professors and Readers, Board for the, The Professors, provided that Emeritus Professors, Honorary Professors and part-time professors shall not be members under this category
  32. 1999-07-01 to 2012-06-30: Faculty of Education, Board of the, The teachers who are members of the Faculty and who are full-time employees of the University
  33. 1996-11-05 to 1999-06-30: Senate, 2 teachers from each Faculty being members of the Board of that Faculty and not being Professors or the Heads of Teaching Departments, who shall be elected by the non-professorial members of the Board, Education Faculty Board
  34. 1992-07-01 to 1995-03-18: External Examiners, Committee on, Three teachers, one from each of the following groups of Faculties nominated by the Vice-Chancellor and on a triennial rotation basis, appointed by the Senate: a. Fac of Dent and Med b. Fac of Eng, Sci and Arch c. Fac of Arts, Edu, Soc Sci and Law., Senate
  35. 1991-10-01 to 1995-03-17: Senate, Other Heads of Teaching Department
  36. 1990-11-01 to 1999-06-30: Faculty of Education, Board of the, Readers in Faculty

 

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