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Professor BRAY, Mark

Personal Particulars

Professor BRAY, Mark

貝 磊

BA (Newcastle upon Tyne), MSc, PhD (Edinburgh)

Chair Professor

UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education
Director, Comparative Education Research Centre

Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences Education

Tel: (852) 2219 4194

Location: Room 411, Runme Shaw Building

Areas of Expertise:

Comparative Education; Shadow Education (Private Supplementary Tutoring)

Areas of Expertise

Teaching Areas:
Comparative education

Research Interests:
Comparative education; shadow education (private supplementary tutoring); costs and financing of education

Awards
  • Prestigious Fellowship, Humanities & Social Sciences Panel of the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (2013/14)
  • Comparative & International Education Society (CIES) Higher Education SIG: Best Book Award (2013)
  • International Visiting Scholar, University of British Columbia, Canada: Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies (2012/14)
  • UNESCO Chair in Comparative Education (2012)
  • HKU Knowledge Exchange Award (2012)
  • Director (on secondment from HKU): UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris (2006-2010)
  • President, World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) (2004-2007)
  • Dean, Faculty of Education, HKU (2002-2006)
  • HKU Outstanding Researcher Award (2000)
  • President, Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong (1998-2000)
  • American Educational Research Association (AERA) International Studies SIG: Outstanding International Study of the Year Award (1996)
Projects
  1. Hong Kong Research Grants Council, General Research Fund (GRF) 2014-2016: ‘Constructing a Theoretical Model of the Relationship between Education Policy and Participation in Private Tutoring in Cambodia’. Role: Principal Investigator and leader of a team of five.
  2. University of Hong Kong, Knowledge Exchange (KE) Funding Exercise 2012: Policy Forum ‘Regulating the Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and Government Policies in Asia’. Event held 8-9 April 2013 in partnership with UNESCO-Bangkok and the Asian Development Bank. http://www.unescobkk.org/education/news/article/confronting-the-growth-of-shadow-education
  3. Hong Kong Research Grants Council, General Research Fund (GRF) 2011-2013: ‘Private Supplementary Tutoring: Scale, Nature and Implications for Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong’. Role: Principal Investigator and leader of a team of five.
  4. Asian Development Bank (2011): Study of shadow education and its implications for policy makers in Asia.
  5. European Union (2010): Study of shadow education in Europe
Publications
Academic Books/Monographs
  1. Bray, Mark; Adamson, Bob & Mason, Mark (eds.) (2014): Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, second edition, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer
  2. Bray, Mark; Mazawi, André & Sultana, Ronald (eds.) (2013): Private Tutoring across the Mediterranean: Power Dynamics, and Implications for Learning and Equity. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 216 pp.
  3. Bray, Mark & Varghese, N.V. (eds.) (2011): Directions in Educational Planning: International Experiences and Perspectives. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), 310 pp.
  4. Martin, Michaela & Bray, Mark (eds.) (2011): Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 279 pp.
  5. Masemann, Vandra; Bray, Mark & Manzon, Maria (eds.) (2007): Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and its Members. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer, 383 pp.
  6. Bray, Mark; Adamson, Bob & Mason, Mark (eds.) (2007): Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer, 444 pp.
    • Italian translation published by Franco Angeli, Milan, 2009;
    • French translation published by De Boeck, Brussels, 2010;
    • Spanish translation published by Granica, Buenos Aires, 2010;
    • Chinese translation published by Peking University Press, 2010;
    • Japanese translation published by Sophia University Press, 2011;
    • Farsi translation published by Ayesh Publishers, Tehran, 2011.
  7. Silova, Iveta; Budiene, Virginija & Bray, Mark (eds.) (2006): Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute, 353 pp.
  8. Bray, Mark & Bunly, Seng (2005): Balancing the Books: Household Financing of Basic Education in Cambodia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 115 pp.
    • Parallel English-language version published 2005 by the World Bank, Washington DC.
    • Khmer translation published 2007 by UNESCO, Phnom Penh, 116 pp.
    • Chinese translation published 2008 by Beijing Normal University Press Publishing Group, 89 pp.
  9. Bray, Mark & Koo, Ramsey (eds.) (2004): Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change. second edition. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 323 pp.
    • Parallel English-language version published by Springer, Dordrecht, 2005.
    • Chinese translation in traditional characters published by National Taiwan Normal University Press, Taipei, 2005.
    • Chinese translation in simplified characters published by People's Education Press, Beijing, 2006.
  10. Bray, Mark (ed.) (2003): Comparative Education: Continuing Traditions, New Challenges, and New Paradigms. Special double issue of International Review of Education, Vol.49, Nos. 1 & 2. Republished in book form by Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003, 262 pp.
    • Bulgarian translation published by Bureau of Educational Services, Sofia, 2005;
    • Farsi translation published by Jungle Publishing House, Tehran, 2005;
    • Japanese translation published by Toshindo Press, Tokyo, 2005;
    • Hungarian translation published by Hungarian Pedagogic Society, Budapest, 2006;
    • Italian translation published by Cooperativa Universitaria Editrice Catanese di Magisterio, 2006;
    • Chinese translation published by East China Normal University Press, Shanghai, 2007;
    • Bosnian translation published by University of Sarajevo, 2007;
    • Russian translation published by Institute for Development of Education Systems, Russian Academy of Education, 2008;
    • Spanish translation published by Planea, Mexico City, 2010.
  11. Bray, Mark with Butler, R., Hui, P., Kwo, O. & Mang, E. (2002): Higher Education in Macau: Growth and Strategic Development. Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 124 pp.
  12. Bray, Mark & Lee, W.O. (eds.) (2001): Education and Political Transition: Themes and Experiences in East Asia. CERC Studies in Comparative Education 1, second edition; Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 228 pp..
  13. Bray, Mark & Thomas, R. Murray (eds.) (1998): Financing of Education in Indonesia, Asian Development Bank, Manila/Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 135 pp.
  14. Bray, Mark & Steward, Lucy (eds.) (1998): Examination Systems in Small States: Comparative Perspectives on Policies, Models and Operations, The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 292 pp.
  15. Lee, W.O. & Bray, Mark (eds.) (1996): Education and Socio-Political Change in Asia, special issue of Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Vol.16, No.1, 121 pp.; Republished in revised form as Lee, W.O. & Bray, Mark (eds.) (1997): Education and Political Transition: Perspectives and Dimensions in East Asia, CERC Studies in Comparative Education 1, Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 115 pp.
  16. Bray, Mark (1996): Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia, The World Bank, Washington DC (in collaboration with UNICEF), 84 pp.  Revised version published in Chinese (2000) by Beijing Normal University Press, 115 pp.
  17. Bray, Mark (ed.) (1993): The Economics and Financing of Education: Hong Kong and Comparative Perspectives, Education Paper 20, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 170 pp.
  18. Bray, Mark & Packer, Steve (1993): Education in Small States: Concepts, Challenges and Strategies, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 295 pp. 
  19. Bray, Mark (ed.) (1991): Ministries of Education in Small States: Case Studies of Organisation and Management, The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 295 pp.
  20. Bray, Mark (ed.) (1990): Educational Administration in Hong Kong: Personnel and Schools Education Paper 5, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 116 pp. 
  21. Bray, Mark with Lillis, Kevin (eds.) (1988): Community Financing of Education: Issues and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1988, 234 pp.
  22. Bray, Mark; Clarke, Peter B. & Stephens, David (1986): Education and Society in Africa, Edward Arnold, London, 191 pp. 
  23. Bray, Mark & Smith, Peter (eds.) (1985): Education and Social Stratification in Papua New Guinea, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 227 pp.
  24. Bray, Mark (1984): Educational Planning in a Decentralised System: The Papua New Guinean Experience, University of Papua New Guinea Press, Port Moresby/Sydney University Press, Sydney, 159 pp.
  25. Bray, Mark (1981): Universal Primary Education in Nigeria: A Study of Kano State, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 212 pp.

 

Books for Policy-Makers and Administrators  

[All these books are firmly grounded in research, but in style they aim for a non-academic audience.]

  1. Menefee, Trey & Bray, Mark (2012): Education in the Commonwealth: Towards and Beyond the Internationally Agreed Goals. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat, 248 pp.
  2. Bray, Mark & Lykins, Chad (2012): Shadow Education: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 98 pp.
    • Chinese translation in preparation
    • Vietnamese translation 2012, CERC and ADB, 99 pp.
  3. Bray, Mark (2011): The Challenge of Shadow Education: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission, 79 pp.
  4. Crossley, Michael; Bray, Mark & Packer, Steve (2011): Education in Small States: Policies and Priorities. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat, 85 pp.
  5. Bray, Mark (2009): Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?. 132 pp. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).
    • Portuguese translation: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2014.
    • Arabic translation: Arab League, Cairo, 2012, 145 pp.
    • Armenian translation: UNESCO and French University of Armenia, Yerevan, 2012, 191 pp.
    • Azeri translation: Centre for Educational Innovations, Baku, Azerbaijan, 2012, 167 pp.
    • Bangla translation: UNESCO, Dhaka, 2011, 111 pp.
    • Chinese translation: UNESCO, Beijing, 2012, 122 pp.
    • French translation: UNESCO-IIEP, 2011, 140 pp.
    • Georgian translation: Tbilisi University Press, 2011, 195 pp.
    • Hindi translation: UNESCO, New Delhi, 2011, 132 pp.
    • Kannada translation: UNESCO, New Delhi, 2013, 141 pp.
    • Korean translation: Korean Educational Development Institute, Seoul, 2010, 124 pp
    • Mongolian translation: UNESCO Ulaanbaatar, 2010, 134 pp.
    • Nepali translation: UNESCO Kathmandu, 2012, 120 pp.
    • Polish translation: Wolters Kluwer Polska, 2012, 185 pp.
    • Sinhala translation: UNESCO New Delhi, 2011, 128 pp.
    • Spanish translation: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE), Mexico, 2013, 189 pp.
    • Urdu translation: UNESCO Islamabad, 2010, 125 pp.
  6. Bray, Mark (2008): Double-Shift Schooling: Design and Operation for School Effectiveness. Third edition The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 95 pp. Parallel edition published in English and French by UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris
  7. Bray, Mark; Ding Xiaohao & Huang Ping (2004, reprinted 2006): Reducing the Burden on the Poor: Household Costs of Basic Education in Gansu, China. Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong in association with Gansu Basic Education Project, Lanzhou, 67 pp. Also published (in parallel) in Chinese, 53 pp.
  8. Bray, Mark (2003): Adverse Effects of Supplementary Private Tutoring: Dimensions, Implications, and Government Responses. Series: 'Ethics and Corruption in Education'. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 84 pp.
    • Azeri translation, Baku [Azerbaijan]; Open Society Institute, 2005
    • Chinese translation, Beijing Normal University Press Publishing Group, 2008.
  9. Bray, Mark (2002): The Costs and Financing of Education: Trends and Policy Implications. Series 'Education in Developing Asia'. Asian Development Bank, Manila; Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong, 77 pp..
  10. Bray, Mark (2001): Community Partnerships in Education: Dimensions, Variations and Implications. UNESCO, Paris, 48 pp. French version: Partenariats aven les Communautés dans l'Éducation: Dimensions, Variations et Implications.
  11. Bray, Mark (1999; reprinted 2007): The Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Planners Fundamentals in Educational Planning, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris, 97 pp.
    • French translation, UNESCO-IIEP, 1999
    • Azeri translation, Center for Innovation and Policy, Baku, 2006
    • Chinese translation, Beijing Normal University Press Publishing Group, 2008
    • Farsi translation, Resa, Tehran, 2009.
  12. Bray, Mark (1999): The Private Costs of Public Schooling: Household and Community Financing of Primary Education in Cambodia, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) in collaboration with UNICEF, Paris, 115 pp. Short version published in Khmer by UNICEF, Phnom Penh, 1999, 27 pp.
  13. Bray, Mark (1996): Decentralization of Education: Community Financing, The World Bank, Washington DC, 51 pp.
    • Thai translation, Krung Thep: Samakngan Khana Kammakan Kansuksa Ha ng Chat, 1999.
    • Farsi translation, International Scientific Cooperation Office, Ministry of Education, Tehran, 2000.
  14. Bray, Mark (1992): Educational Planning in Small Countries, UNESCO, Paris, 130 pp.
    • French translation, UNESCO, Paris, 1992. 
    • Arabic translation, Jamiat-al-Kuwayt, Kuwait, 1995.
  15. Bray, Mark (1991): Making Small Practical: The Organisation and Management of Ministries of Education in Small States, The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 127 pp.
  16. Bray, Mark (1987): School Clusters in the Third World: Making them Work [also available in French: Les Groupements Scolaires dans le Tiers Monde: Comment les Faire Fonctionner], Digest No.23, UNESCO/ UNICEF, Paris, 147 pp.  Khmer translation published 1994 by UNICEF, Phnom Penh.
  17. Bray, Mark (1987): Are Small Schools the Answer?  Cost-Effective Strategies for Rural School Provision, The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 89 pp.  Chinese edition published 1990 by State Planning Commission, Beijing. Farsi translation published 2002 by Jameaye No, Tehran.
  18. Bray, Mark (1986): New Resources for Education: Community Management and Financing of Schools in Less Developed Countries, The Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 88 pp.
     
Journal articles (since 1990)
  1. Chan, Claudia & Bray, Mark (2014): 'Marketised private tutoring as a supplement to regular schooling: Liberal Studies and the shadow sector in Hong Kong secondary education', Journal of Curriculum Studies, in press.
  2. Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad & Kwo, Ora (2014): 'The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: Students' Perceptions in Comparison with Mainstream Schooling in Hong Kong', Asia Pacific Education Review, in press.
  3. Bray, Mark; Zhan, Shengli; Lykins, Chad; Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora (2014): 'Differentiated Demand for Private Supplementary Tutoring: Patterns and Implications in Hong Kong Secondary Education'. Economics of Education Review, Vol.38, No.1, pp.24-37.
  4. Bray, Mark & Kwo, Ora (2013): 'Behind the Façade of Fee-Free Education: Shadow Education and its Implications for Social Justice'. Oxford Review of Education, Vol.39, No.4, pp.480-497.
  5. Bray, Mark (2013): 'L'éducation parallèle: Nature et implications du tutorat extrascolaire privé en Europe'. Revue Internationale d'Éducation – Sèvres, No.66, pp.89-98.
  6. Bray, Mark (2013): 'Benefits and Tensions of Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Roles and Impact of Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Lives of Hong Kong Students'. Journal of International and Comparative Education, Vol.2, No.1, pp.18-30.
  7. Bray, Mark (2010): 'Comparative Education and International Education in the History of Compare: Boundaries, Overlaps and Ambiguities'. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, Vol.40, No.6, pp.711-725.
  8. Bray, Mark (2010): 'Researching Shadow Education: Methodological Challenges and Directions', Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.11, No.1, pp.3-13.
  9. Crossley, Michael; Bray, Mark & Packer, Steve (2009): 'Education in the Small States of the Commonwealth: Towards and Beyond Global Goals and Targets', The Round Table, Vol.98, No.405, pp.731-751.
  10. Bray, Mark (2008): 'The WCCES and Intercultural Dialogue: Historical Perspectives and Continuing Challenges'.International Review of Education, Vol.54, Nos.3-4, pp.299-317.
  11. Bray, Mark (2007): 'Governance and Free Education: Directions, Mechanisms, and Policy Tensions'. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, Vol.XXXVII, No.1, pp.23-35.
  12. Li, Mei & Bray, Mark (2007): 'Cross-border Flows of Students for Higher Education: Push-Pull Factors and Motivations of Mainland Chinese Students in Hong Kong and Macau', Higher Education, Vol.53, No.6, pp.791-818.
  13. Li, Mei & Bray, Mark (2006): Social Class and Cross-Border Higher Education: Mainland Chinese Students in Hong Kong and Macau'. Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol.7, No.4, pp.407-424.
  14. Bray, Mark (2006): 'Private Supplementary Tutoring: Comparative Perspectives on Patterns and Implications', Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, Vol.36, No.4, pp.515-530.
  15. Manzon, Maria & Bray, Mark (2006): 'The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) and the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES): Leadership, Ambiguities and Synergies', Current Issues in Comparative Education, Vol.8, No.2, pp.69-83.
  16. Yamato, Yoko & Bray, Mark (2006): 'Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China', Journal of Research in International Education, Vol.5, No.1, pp.57-82.
  17. Mukundan, M.V. & Bray, Mark (2004): 'Decentralisation of Education in Kerala State, India: Rhetoric and Reality',International Review of Education, Vol.50, No.3, pp.223-243.
  18. Bray, Mark & Koo, Ramsey (2004): 'Postcolonial Patterns and Paradoxes: Language and Education in Hong Kong and Macao', Comparative Education, Vol.40, No.2, pp.215-239.
  19. Bray, Mark & Kwok, Percy (2003): 'Demand for Private Supplementary Tutoring: Conceptual Considerations, and Socio-Economic Patterns in Hong Kong'. Economics of Education Review, Vol.22, No.6, pp.611-620.
  20. Bray, Mark & Yoko Yamato (2003): 'Comparative Education in a Microcosm: Methodological Insights from the International Schools Sector in Hong Kong', International Review of Education, Vol.49, Nos. 1 & 2, pp.49-71.
  21. Bray, Mark (2003): 'Tradition, Change and the Role of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies',International Review of Education, Vol.49, Nos. 1 & 2, pp.1-13.
  22. Bray, Mark (2003): 'Community Initiatives in Education: Goals, Dimensions, and Linkages with Governments', Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, Vol.33, No.1, pp.31-45.
  23. Bray, Mark & Kwo, Ora (2002): 'Higher Education in Small Territories: Political Transition and Development in Macau',Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.3, No.2, pp.184-196.
  24. Bray, Mark (2002): 'Comparative Education in the Era of Globalisation: Evolution, Missions and Roles', Revista Española de Educación Comparada, No.8, pp.115-135.
  25. Bray, Mark (2002): 'Comparative Education in East Asia: Growth, Development and Contributions to the Global Field',Current Issues in Comparative Education, Vol.4, No.2, pp.70-80.
  26. Yamato, Yoko & Bray, Mark (2002): 'Education and Socio-Political Change: The Continued Growth and Evolution of the International Schools Sector in Hong Kong', Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.3, No.1, pp.24-36.
  27. Bray, Mark & Gui Qin (2001): 'Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts, and Contributions', Comparative Education, Vol.37, No.4, pp.451-473. Reprinted in Crossley, M., Broadfoot, P. & Schweisfurth, M. (eds.) (2007): Changing Educational Contexts, Issues and Identities: 40 Years of Comparative Education. London: Routledge, pp.319-349. German translation 'Vergleichende Erziehungswissenschaft in chinesische sprechenden Gesellschaften: Entstehung, Entwicklung und Beiträge', in Eckhardt Fuchs (ed.), Bilding International: Historische Perspektiven und aktuelle Entwicklungen. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 2006, pp.87-112.
  28. Bray, Mark & Borevskaya, Nina (2001): 'Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China',Comparative Education, Vol.37, No.3, pp.345-366.
  29. Bray, Mark (2001): 'Out-of-School Supplementary Tutoring', Childhood Education: Infancy through Early Adolescence, Vol.77, No.6, pp.360-366.
  30. Bray, Mark & Adam, Khadeeja (2001): 'The Dialectic of the International and the National: Secondary School Examinations in Maldives', International Journal of Educational Development, Vol.21, No.3, pp.231-244.
  31. Tang Kwok Chun & Bray, Mark (2000): 'Colonial Models and the Evolution of Education Systems: Centralization and Decentralization in Hong Kong and Macau', Journal of Educational Administration, Vol.38, No.5, pp.468-485.
  32. Coyne, Geoffrey & Bray, Mark (1999): 'External Aid and Education in Small States: Structural Issues, and Insights from a World Bank Assisted Project in Solomon Islands', Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Vol.19, No.1, pp.31-43.
  33. Bray, Mark (1998): 'Financing Education in Developing Asia: Themes, Tensions, and Policies', International Journal of Educational Research, Vol.29, No.7, pp.627-42.
  34. Bray, Mark (1998): 'Regional Examinations Councils and Geopolitical Change: Commonality, Diversity, and Lessons from Experience', International Journal of Educational Development, Vol.18, No.4, pp.473-486.
  35. Bray, Mark & Gui Qin (1998): 'Comparative Education Research in the Asian Region: Implications for the Field as a Whole', Comparative Education Review [Beijing Normal University], No.112, pp.13-15 [in Chinese].
  36. Bray, Mark (1998): 'National Self-Determination and International Dependence: The Organisation and Control of Secondary School Examinations in the Small States of the Commonwealth', Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol.5, No.2, pp.151-73.
  37. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Recognising the Burden on Households: Family and Community Financing of Primary Education in East Asia', Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Vol.XI, No.2, pp.163-78.
  38. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Education and Colonial Transition: The Hong Kong Experience in Comparative Perspective',Comparative Education, Vol.33, No.2, pp.157-69.  French translation: 'L'éducation et la transition coloniale: l'expérience de Hong Kong dans une approche comparative', in Louis Augustine-Jean & Florence Padovani (eds.) (2007), Hong Kong Économie, Société, Culture. Paris : L'Harmattan, pp.333-358.
  39. Bray, Mark & Lee, W.O. (1996): 'Education and Socio-Political Transitions in Asia: Diversity and Commonality', Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Vol.16, No.1, pp.9-23. 
  40. Bray, Mark (1996): 'Equity Issues in Local Resourcing of Education: Community Financing of Primary Schools in Bhutan',International Review of Education, Vol.42, No.5, pp.495-514.
  41. Bray, Mark & Ieong, Pedro (1996): 'Education and Social Change: The Growth and Diversification of the International Schools Sector in Hong Kong', International Education, Vol.25, No.2, pp.49-73.
  42. Bray, Mark (1996): 'Educational Reform in a Small State: Bhutan's New Approach to Primary Education', International Journal of Educational Reform, Vol.5, No.1, pp.15-25.
  43. Bray, Mark & Thomas, R. Murray (1995): 'Levels of Comparison in Educational Studies: Different Insights from Different Literatures and the Value of Multilevel Analyses', Harvard Educational Review, Vol.65, No.3, pp.472-490. 
  44. Bray, Mark; Davaa, S., Spaulding, S. & Weidman J. (1994): 'Transition from Socialism and the Financing of Higher Education: The Case of Mongolia', Higher Education Policy, Vol.7, No.4, pp.36-42.
  45. Bray, Mark & Tang Kwok Chun (1994): 'Imported Textbooks, Non-Interventionist Policies and School Curricula in Macau',Curriculum and Teaching, Vol.9, No.2, pp.29-43.
  46. Bray, Mark (1994): 'Centralization/Decentralization and Privatization/Publicization: Conceptual Issues and the Need for More Research', International Journal of Educational Research, Vol.21, No.8, pp.817-24.
  47. Bray, Mark (1994): 'Decolonisation and Education: New Paradigms for the Remnants of Empire', Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, Vol.24, Vol.1, pp.37-51.
  48. Bray, Mark & Lee, W.O. (1993): 'Education, Democracy and Colonial Transition: The Case of Hong Kong', International Review of Education, Vol.39, No.6, pp.541-560. 
  49. Bray, Mark (1993): 'Education and the Vestiges of Colonialism: Self-Determination, Neocolonialism and Dependency in the South Pacific', Comparative Education, Vol.29, No.3, pp.333-48.
  50. Bray, Mark (1992): 'Centralization versus Decentralization in Curriculum Development: Contrasting Patterns in Hong Kong and Macau', New Horizons: Journal of the Hong Kong Teachers' Association, Vol.33, pp.15-23.
  51. Bray, Mark & Chhoeda, Tenzin (1992): 'The Implications of Size for Educational Development in Small States: The Case of Bhutan', Canadian and International Education, Vol.21, No.2, pp.5-22.
  52. Bray, Mark (1992): 'Colonialism, Scale and Politics: Divergence and Convergence of Educational Development in Hong Kong and Macau', Comparative Education Review, Vol.36, No.3, pp.322-42.
  53. Li Shouxin & Bray, Mark (1992): 'Attempting a Capitalist Form of Financing in a Socialist System: Student Loans in the People's Republic of China', Higher Education, Vol.23, No.4, pp.375-387.
  54. Bray, Mark (1991): 'Centralization versus Decentralization in Educational Administration: Regional Issues', Educational Policy, Vol.5, No.4, pp.371-85.
  55. Bray, Mark (1991): 'The Organization and Management of Ministries of Education in Small States', Public Administration and Development, Vol.11, No.1, pp.67-78. 
  56. Bray, Mark (1991): 'Strategies for Financing Higher Education: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Macau', Higher Education, Vol.20, No.1, pp.11-25. 
  57. Bray, Mark (1990): 'Provision of Higher Education in Small States: Demands, Constraints and Strategies', Higher Education Quarterly, Vol.44, No.3, pp.264-81.
  58. Bray, Mark (1990): 'The Quality of Education in Multiple-Shift Schools: How far does a Financial Saving Imply an Educational Cost?', Comparative Education, Vol.26, No.1, pp.73-81.

 

Chapters in Books (since 1990)
  1. Bray, Mark & Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze (2014): 'The Global Spread of Shadow Education: Supporting or Undermining Qualities of Education?', in Napier, Diane Brook; Acedo, Clementina & Pitman, Allan (eds.), Qualities of Education in a Globalized World. Rotterdam: Sense (in press).
  2. Zhang, Wei & Bray, Mark (2013): 'Researching Supplementary Education: Plans, Realities, and Lessons from Fieldwork in China', Aurini, Janice (ed.), Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education. Bingley: Emerald, pp.67-94.
  3. Bray, Mark (2013): 'Shadow Education: The Rise of Private Tutoring and Associated Corruption Risks', in Transparency International (ed.), Global Corruption Report: Education. London: Routledge, pp.83-87.
  4. Mazawi, André E., Sultana, Ronald G. & Bray, Mark (2013): 'Beyond Shadows: Equity, Diversity, and Private Tutoring, inBray, Mark; Mazawi, André & Sultana, Ronald (eds.), Private Tutoring across the Mediterranean: Power Dynamics, and Implications for Learning and Equity. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp.205-216.
  5. Martin, Michaela & Bray, Mark (2012): 'Higher Education in Small States', in Adamson, Bob; Nixon, Jon & Su, Feng (eds.),The Reorientation of Higher Education: Challenging the East-West Dichotomy. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer, pp.50-75.
  6. Bray, Mark (2011): 'Four Milestones in the work of IIEP', in Bray, Mark & Varghese, N.V. (eds.), Directions in Educational Planning: International Experiences and Perspectives. UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, pp.35-62.
  7. Bray, Mark (2011): 'The Small-States Paradigm and its Evolution', in Martin, Michaela & Bray, Mark (eds.), Tertiary Education in Small States: Planning in the Context of Globalization. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, pp.37-72.
  8. Manzon, Maria & Bray, Mark (2007): 'Comparing the Comparers: Common Patterns, Uncommon Themes', in Masemann, Vandra; Bray, Mark & Manzon, Maria (eds.), Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and its Members. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer, pp.336-363. Revised and updated version published in Japanese (2013): 'Comparing the Comparers: The Global Development of Professional Comparative Education Societies', in Yamada, Shoko & Minoru Morishita (eds.), Opening the Horizon of Comparative Education: Academic Perspectives and Intellectual Collaboration. Tokyo: Toshindo, pp.101-125.
  9. Bray, Mark & Silova, Iveta (2006): 'The Private Tutoring Phenomenon: International Patterns and Perspectives', in Silova, Iveta; Budiene, Virginija & Bray, Mark (eds.): Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute, pp.27-40.
  10. Bray, Mark & Tang, Kwok-Chun (2006): 'Building and Diversifying Education Systems: Evolving Patterns and Contrasting Trends in Hong Kong and Macau', in Bjork, Chris (ed.), Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions, Springer, Dordrecht, pp.71-95.
  11. Bray, Mark (2003): 'Other Fields and Ours: Academic Discourse and the Nature of Comparative Education', in Nikolay Popov (ed.), Comparative Education in Teacher Training, Bureau for Educational Services, Sofia, pp.9-20. Reprinted inComparative and International Education Review [Athens], No.3, 2004, pp.61-85.
  12. Bray, Mark (2001): 'Higher Education and Colonial Transition in Macau: Market Forces and State Intervention in a Small Society', in Bray, Mark & Lee, W.O. (eds.), Education and Political Transition: Themes and Experiences in East Asia. CERC Studies in Comparative Education 1, second edition; Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, pp.139-161.
  13. Bray, Mark (1999): 'Continuity and Change in Education', in Bray, Mark & Koo, Ramsey (eds.), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, pp.225-241.  Chinese-language version published 2002, pp.203-218. Revised second edition (English) 2004, pp.251-269. Revised second edition (Chinese) 2005, pp.239-257.
  14. Bray, Mark (1999): 'Methodology and Focus in Comparative Education'; in Bray, Mark & Koo, Ramsey (eds.), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change, Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, pp.209-223.  Chinese-language version published 2002, pp.189-202. Revised second edition (English) 2004, pp.237-250. Revised second edition (Chinese) 2005, pp.225-228.
  15. Bray, Mark (1999): 'Control of Education: Issues and Tensions in Centralization and Decentralization', in Robert F. Arnove & Carlos A. Torres (eds.), Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland, pp.207-232. Revised version in second edition, 2003, pp.204-228. Further revised version in third edition, 2007, pp.175-196. Further revised version in fourth edition, 2013, pp.201-222.
  16. Bray, Mark (1999): 'Community Financing of Education: Cultural Variations and Policy Dilemmas in Less Developed Countries', in Leach, Fiona & Little, Angela (eds.), Education, Cultures, and Economics: Dilemmas for Development, Falmer, New York, pp.183-202.
  17. Bray, Mark (1998): 'Privatisation of Secondary Education: Issues and Policy Implications', in UNESCO, Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and Prospects, UNESCO, Paris pp.109-133. 
  18. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Education and Decolonization: Comparative Perspectives on Change and Continuity', in William K. Cummings & Noel McGinn (eds.), International Handbook of Education and Development: Preparing Schools, Students and Nations for the Twenty-First Century, Pergamon, Oxford, pp.103-118.
  19. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Education and the Labour Market', in G.A. Postiglione & W.O. Lee (eds.), Schooling in Hong Kong: Organization, Teaching and Social Context, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp.43-63.
  20. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands', in G.A. Postiglione & G.C.L. Mak (eds.), Asian Higher Education: An International Handbook and Reference Guide, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, pp.245-263.
  21. Bray, Mark (1997): 'Community Financing of Education: Rationales, Mechanisms, and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries', in Christopher Colclough (ed.), Marketizing Education and Health in Developing Countries: Miracle or Mirage?, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 185-204.
  22. Lee, Wing-on & Bray, Mark (1995): 'Education: Evolving Patterns and Challenges', in Cheng, Joseph Y.S. & Lo, Sonny (eds.),From Colony to SAR: Hong Kong's Challenges Ahead, The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp.357-78.  Chinese edition published 1997, pp.401-21.
  23. Bray, Mark (1995): 'The Quality of Education in Private Schools: Historical Patterns and the Impact of Recent Policies', in Siu, P.K. & Tam, P.T.K. (eds.), Quality in Education: Insights from Different Perspectives, The Hong Kong Educational Research Association, Hong Kong, pp.183-98.
  24. Bray, Mark (1995): 'Macau', in Paul Morris & Anthony Sweeting (eds.), Education and Development in East Asia, Garland, New York, pp.185-201.
  25. Crawford, Nick & Bray, Mark (1994): 'Hong Kong', in Kas Mazurek & Margret Winzer (eds.), Comparative Studies in Special Education, Gallaudet University Press, Washington, pp.286-302.
  26. Bray, Mark (1992): 'Financing Higher Education through Student Loans: A Comparative Perspective', in Y.P. Chung & Y.C. Wong (eds.), The Economics and Financing of Hong Kong Education, The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp.283-96.
  27. Bray, Mark & Hui, Philip (1991): 'Structure and Content of Education: Evolution and Reform in the Transitional Period', in R.D. Cremer (ed.), Macau: City of Commerce and Culture, second edition, API Press, Hong Kong, pp.299-313.
  28. Bray, Mark (1991/1992): 'Hong Kong Education in an International Context: The Impact of External Forces', in G.A. Postiglione with J.Y.M. Leung (eds.), Education and Society in Hong Kong: Toward One Country and Two Systems, M.E. Sharpe, New York [1991]/Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong [1992], pp.83-94.
  29. Bray, Mark & Hui, Philip (1991): 'Curriculum Development in Macau', in Colin Marsh & Paul Morris (eds.), Curriculum Development in East Asia, Falmer Press, London, pp.184-204.
  30. Bray, Mark (1990): 'The Economics of Education', in R. Murray Thomas (ed.), International Comparative Education: Practices, Issues, and Prospects, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp.253-75.
Professional Community Services
  1. (2012-date)   UNESCO Liaison Representative, World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES)
  2. (2012-date)   Board of Directors, Comparative Education Society of Asia.
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