This is an increasingly visible phenomenon both in Hong Kong and in many other parts of the world. The system of private supplementary tutoring is widely called Shadow Education because much of it mimics the mainstream. Shadow Education has far-reaching implications for the processes of schooling, for social inequalities, and for the lives of students, families and teachers.
Among the books produced by Professor Bray on this theme, some of which have been translated into multiple languages:
Bray, Mark (2009): Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 130pp. Translations have been published in Arabic, Armenian, Azeri, Bangla, Chinese, French, Hindi, Kannada, Korean, Mongolian, Nepali, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish Sinhala, Urdu, Farsi and Uzbek.
Professor Mark Bray received the Knowledge Exchange Award 2012 of the Faculty of Education for the project entitled "Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?".